Empirical results show the market orientation and performance relationship in manufacturing sectors (Nwokah, 2006; Mokhtari et al., 2013; Idar et al. ; 2012) but these two terms are also inter linked in context of service firms also (Caruna et al., 1998; Wood et al., 1998; Singh, 2009; Cheng and Krumweide, 2010, Jalali et al., 2013; and Fathi et al., 2013). Most commonly, services are assumed intangible, inseparable, and heterogeneous but customer plays an important role in the service process. To include the customer on the central level in the service process and building the true relationships with the customers to boost up the brand value of customers, all these are encouraged by market orientation (McNaughton et al., 2002). Some studies told that there are direct link between market orientation and performance (Mahmoud, 2011; Jaiyeoba, 2014; Idar, 2012; Oniku, 2009; Mokhtari, 2013; Amini and Habibi, 2013; Dwairi, 2012; Singh, 2009; Wood et al., 1998; Klaib, 2012; and Fathi, 2013).
However, one issue that comes to fore in this context is as to whether the high cost of formal trainings will be translated into beneficial outcomes. In China, the rapid development of its economy in the recent years, has given rise to intensified competition in its banking sector. This intensified competition has tapped not only the need for formal learning but as well as the increased recognition on the power of informal learning to harness professional development that can eventually lead to organizational success. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore on the effectiveness of informal learning in the workplace, specifically in the case of commercial banks in China. In particular, it will evaluate the impact of informal learning on the professional development of employees.
During the period of 1995-2009, the exports hit a high average level. However, Vietnam's export growth was only high when the country is experiencing the fast economic integration. This indicates that the proactive international economic integration and how the process interacts play an important role to Vietnam's economy. Although the share of labor and resource intensive products remains high, the export structure still shows positive shifts, with share of processed products rise. Vietnam's exports different aligned with the world trade, and the world trade growth is proved to be vitally encourage the expansion of exports.
This fact led to a faster increase of world trade compared to output growth. Since 1985 world trade has grown nearly twice as faster as aoutput. Moreover, the composition of international trade changes, since before the Second World War agricultural products and raw materials were prominent in international trade, but after the main component of international trade has been the international exchange of manufactured good, as it is observable from Chart 1.2. A characteristic element of the second globalisation is the rise of multinational corporations accompanied by the increasing of foreign direct investment (FDI). In fact, multinational corporations use FDI with the aim of own and manage assets in more than one country with the purpose of production of good or services.
Market access issues in services trade, are equally relevant to developing countries, such as services that involve the temporary liquidity of workers. The barriers of export face by developing countries are higher than industrial countries. If the market access for agricultural products becomes higher this may directly reduce the poverty in the developing countries. When the demand growth in manufacturing and urban services in the developing countries, it will significant reduce rural poverty (Geihner and Nankami, 2002). If the market access conditions have increase and been influenced by bilateral trade agreements.
The term "export" is derived from the conceptual meaning as companies produce products in their own countries and sell goods to customers in foreign countries. Exporting allows a company to centrally produce its products for several markets and therefore to gain economies of scale since many countries do not offer a large enough opportunity to justify local production. ‘Export development is associated to high levels of cooperation between exporters and importers, high levels of trust, and communication sufﬁciency.’(Rodriguez, Wize & Martinez 2013, p.1646)One of the advantages is that makes the company less dependent on sales in its home market and provides a wider range of goods and services In addition, the potential market is bigger by selling overseas. Foreign sales over the long term, it will increase overall profitability once export development costs have been covered. Besides, exporting also provides a greater degree of control over all aspects of transaction such as design, production decisions and research.
Mahmood (2005), explored export specialization of Pakistan 's non-agriculture production sectors during 1990-2000 and that how the relative position of different non-agricultural production sectors in Pakistan revealed comparative advantage using RCA. His analysis also showed which of the Pakistan’s non-agricultural products are maintaining, trailing or gaining their base in the world market. Suprihatini (2005), used CMS approach for Indonesian tea exports and the results showed that exports of Indonesian tea was lower than that of world tea growth due to production composition problem, distribution phase problem and low competitiveness of Indonesian
Studying the determinants of exports performance has been one of the major priorities in the field since the 1970s. However, despite of the tremendous attention devoted by researchers, a comprehensive theory that explains export performance is yet to be developed. Some consider that knowledge on this field is fragmented, diverse and sometimes even inconsistent, which makes export performance one of the most contentious fields in international marketing (Katsikeas, Leonidou, & Morgan, 2000). Export performance research at the firm level in emerging economies in Africa is sparse as studies have largely focused on the country level. Rankin et al.
Exports will also potentially bring stability to otherwise fluctuating market demands. Because of these reasons, local and national government are attracted to exports because their local businesses can gain a share in the global market. Conclusion Morgan Motors and Wadia are just two examples of companies that would not survive with exporting. There are many benefits to exporting such as increasing sales and profits, reducing the risks of being bound only to the domestic market, balancing growth across multiple markets, and potentially lowering unit costs, and possibly achieving economies to scale. Therefore, these types of companies choose to export for these reasons as well as for gaining the continued ability to survive in the
et. Al (2008) use data from 1980-2004 with observing 195 panel data they find the positive effects of workers remittance and the input on economic growth in the developing country. They find as other many literature positive impact adding the variable polity (politics) more democratic countries get more score and autocratic gets less score does raise the rate of economic growth after a period. Senbeta (2013) tries to present the effect and the source of economic growth by the remittance with using 50 countries panel data. Senbeta present two findings in one hand remittance have positive relationship and effects with economic growth and in another hand they find no significant impact on total factor productivity.