Fluid Flow Theory

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ABSTRACT

This paper entails the details involved in the application of the fluid flow theory in the food processing industry along with its implication and limitations. The fluid flow theory is very important in the food processing field as it involves transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials and aides in chemical reactions. Though beneficial to the food processing industry; however, there are varying and contributing factors which may limit its efficiency and efficacy. The fluid flow theory is the key technique behind many unit operations including cooling and heat transfer of food products in many production processes. The limiting factors affecting the rate at which the fluid flow theory may be applied will
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Energy from other sources in pumps and fans are converted to pressure or velocity energy in the fluid. It also plays an important role in the production of fluid flow by the means of pumps and fans as pump efficiency is defined as the ratio of the energy supplied by the motor to the increase in velocity and pressure energy given in the fluid. It is important to produce and grasp measurements of pressures and velocities of the equipment as food technologists are more concerned about what class of pumps are used and their characteristics rather than the designed detail of the pump. The qualification of bulk fluid movement is also known as Flow Measurement. There are a variety of ways in which flow can be measured including the use of a positive-displacement meter which can accumulate a fixed volume of fluid before it calculates the number of time the volume is filled in order to measure flow. Another method relies solely on forces that are produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction, which indirectly calculates the flow rate in the system. Flow can be measured by measuring velocity over a known area. Velocity of fluid flow is affected by the viscosity of the liquid. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian are terms that categorize the viscosity of fluid flow. A Newtonian fluids’ viscosity remains constant and they typically possess a linear relationship between viscosity and shear stress; hence application of increasing shear at constant temperature does not affect the viscosity of the fluid. Examples of Newtonian liquids are water, mineral oils, gasoline and

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