This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
For this experiment, the proportion to get a CO2 is 2HCl+Na2CO3 = CO2.., which is 2+ Na2CO3 : 1. So as the mole of hydrochloric acid is bigger,
If the molecular weight affects the rate of diffusion, then the higher the molecular weight, the slower the rate of diffusion. This was observed in the experiment where diffusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) were tested. In this
For an endothermic reaction, heat is absorbed in the reaction, and the value of ΔH is positive. For an exothermic reaction, the situation is just the opposite. Heat is released in the reaction, so heat is a product, and the value of ΔH is negative. If we picture heat as a reactant or a product, we can apply Le Chatelier's principle on raising or lowering concentrations. For instance, if we raise the temperature on an endothermic reaction, it is essentially like adding more reactant to the system, and therefore, by Le Chatelier's principle, the equilibrium will shift the right.
Did you know that saltwater is more dense than fresh water? The salt adds a lot more volume. Therefore salt water has more volume than freshwater. Volume is the amount of space or a measurement of mass. Volume is mainly used to measure liquids.
The residual HA concentration of the settled water could be controlled within 1.50 mg/L. Meanwhile, the zeta potential of the coagulated HA generally increased with increasing CB dosage, indicating that the negative charges on the HA molecules was neutralized by the positive charges on the CB surface. This results are consistent with existing literature data for inorganic coagulants [4,25]. The number of charges on both HA and CB surfaces varied with pH , which might affect HA removal by coagulation. It was determined that as the solution pH decreased
The highest growth and red pigment production obtained from medium containing amino acid was L- tryptophan (4.75 ± 0.09 A500) and maximum dry cell mass was (3.9 ± 0.02 g/l) as shown in fig. 9. Juzlova et al (1996) described that amino acid addition in growth medium of Monascus lead to increase red pigment production than other pigment. Metal ions additions showed a great effect on Monascus both growth and red pigment production (Fig. 10).
The buoyancy lag time in simulated gastric fluid (0.1 mol L-1 HCL, pH 1.2) varied with the formulation variable. Formulation P1 exhibited the least buoyancy lag time (26 s) while formulation P6 exhibited the highest lag time (219 s). The decrease in the buoyancy lag time of a formulation P1 can be attributed to the availability of an increased amount of carbon dioxide as the with concentration of calcium carbonate which was entrapped in the formed gel to give rapid buoyancy. Irrespective of formulation variables, buoyancy duration was >12
Name: Brendan Date : 24th Nov How temperature affects the rate of reaction Research Question: Does increasing or decreasing the temperature of hydrochloric acid affect the rate of reaction with magnesium? Introduction: The four factors that affect the rate of reaction; surface area, catalysts, temperature and concentration. In this case, it would be the temperature (Rate of Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid). According to the chemistry textbook, Chemistry higher tier, by increasing the temperature the rate of reaction increases. This happens because of the collision theory.