John Marshall's Three Main Court Cases

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John Marshall had a significant impact on strengthening the national government during his term as Chief Justice from 1800-1830. Marshall achieved this goal by strengthening the power of the Supreme Court in three main court cases. In Marbury v. Madison Marshall established the practice of judicial review, then in McCulloch v. Maryland he weakened the central government and Gibbons v. Ogden provided the federal government with the ability to regulate interstate commerce. Marbury v. Madison (1803) was a court case that began the practice of judicial review. This case started because the night before President John Adams term ended, he appointed 42 justices of the peace. One of these justices that were appointed was William Marbury. The…show more content…
Maryland (1819) is a huge court in defining federalism, which is a balance of power between the national government and the state government. In 1816, Congress passed a law to incorporate the National Bank. They set first bank was set up in Philadelphia, then decided to set one up in Maryland which is led by James William McCulloch. The state Maryland was upset by this law, so they voted to pass a law which would tax all bank business not done with state banks, which take people who lived in Maryland but did business with banks in other states. Maryland passed this law due to what they believed was allowed under the tenth amendment which states if it is not in the constitution, it is up the states to make a decision. Maryland passed this law to tax the federal bank. McCulloch, the President of the bank refused to pay the tax. The State of Maryland sued McCulloch, and the Supreme Court accepted the case. In the opinion written by Chief Justice Marshall, the Court ruled that the Bank of the United States was constitutional and that the Maryland tax was not. The Supreme Court said that the Bank of the United States has every right due to the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article I, Section 8 which stated that Congress can pass laws that they consider “necessary and proper”. In addition, the Supreme Court also stated Maryland lacked the power to tax the Bank due to the Supremacy Clause of Article VI of the

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