This concept is necessary in order to explain individual differences. In the study, the appraisal concept is used in the questionnaire as a means of measurement for motivational disposition in the coping mechanisms section. Appraisal has two basic forms: Primary appraisal concerns whether something of relevance to an individual occurs and Secondary appraisal which concerns coping options. In relation to the concept of appraisal, since, this study focuses on the level of stress of different people and the factors causing stress, the researchers, through the analysis of the tabulation results of the survey, could possibly evaluate the conditions of the respondents based on their responses to their stress level in a specific factor. Being limited to the same group of individuals as respondents, which specifically are students in the accountancy program, the respondents’ current state with regards to the effects of stress in their studies, would most likely be assessed by the researchers having enough data of dealing with the different factors of stress.
At the reflexive phase, isolation recognized as suffering and pain as basic needs are at risk, recognition and feeling of pain drives intentness and mental assessment. During the reflective phase, individual drives to gain back hold-up needs, protecting acceptance and self-respect guides to communal sensitivity and prosocial reactions, protecting and strengthening control or presence with recognition guides to mastering, provoking or antisocial reactions. Along the acceptance phase, ostracized persons or groups have the feelings of powerlessness, unfriendliness and depression. Williams (1997) stated that a threat to basic needs induces mental suffering and pain. So, individuals are inspired to extract such pain with behaviours intended at decreasing ostracism and improving their position at acceptance
Psychological stress refers to relationship with the environment that the person appraises as significant for his/her well-being and in which the demands tax or exceed available coping resources. Hardiness Theory comprises of three beliefs that makes people more resilient to psychological distress and physical illness in the face of stress. Social Support Theory says that support reduces effects of stressful life events on health through either the supportive actions of others on the belief that support is available. Supportive actions are thought to enhance coping performance while perceptions of available support lead to appraising potentially threatening situations as less stressful Attribution Theory deals with how perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events It is concerned with how and why ordinary people explain events as they
Data were displayed showing the total ranges of the ratings, medians, means, and standard deviations for each of the categories. These data provide additional information that was not reported previously. From the data, one notes that the Self-imposed category (which included stressors one imposes on self) was the most stressful among the stressors categories. The Physiological category (which includes emotional and behavioral reactions) involved the most common reactions to stressors. In providing these additional data on the SSI, there should be a better understanding of how the SSI was constructed, and how it can be used in future research
Stress Management: It is how an individual copes with high level of stress and how he manages himself in circumstances which may be akin to stress causing circumstances. Stress management includes coping strategies. Emotional Management: how an individual relates with others, and how he handles his emotions and expresses himself and his feelings before others. Coping Strategies: Coping strategies include various strategies for handling stress causing circumstances. Performance: Career progress or career success is defined as performance in this study.
Instead, this is defined by two points of processes, which is the cognitive appraisal and coping. The concept of appraisal is based on the idea that emotional processes (including stress) are dependent on actual expectancies a person has manifest with regard to the significance and outcome of a specific encounter. These appraisals, in turn, are determined by a number of personal and situational factors. The most important factors on the personal side are motivational dispositions, goals, values, and generalized
Parkes (1996) has written that there is an optimal level of grieving for each individual and that it is important for those feelings to be allowed expression. The counsellor who used a psychodynamic approach mostly would perhaps be more swift to explore how earlier experiences of loss and hopelessness were affecting the current experience of loss and hopelessness. Hope inspiration seemed to be achieved more as a result of the presence of firm qualities in the counsellor and the application of such qualities, rather than as a result of refined techniques. Bereavement counselling for individuals experiencing a complicated grief reaction appears to require a particular interpersonal environment or atmosphere. Rogers (1952) is most noted for suggesting the necessary and sufficient conditions that make up such an interpersonal counselling environment.
TRA also states that people regularly consider the consequences of their behaviors before engaging these behaviors. There are three concepts of TRA: behavioral intention, attitude, and subjective norms. In this model, a behavioral intention serves as the person’s attitude towards the behavior and subjective norms. Subjective norms are the perceived expectations of the individuals such as significant others, family members, experts, and co-workers. Voluntary behavior is predicted by one’s attitude toward the behavior and what important people would think if the behavior was not performed.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure (Wikipedia). Although there are apparently many different types of emotions, they all have some common characteristics. Emotions are mainly non-purposeful and instinctive. Those acting principally on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, exceptionally in the interpretation of events. In the perspective of basic emotions written by Paul Ekman (1999), fear, anger, disgust, sadness and contempt, all negative emotions, differ in their appraisal, antecedent events, probable behavioral response, and physiology.
Building on Selye’s interpretation of stress, Lazarus came up with a transactional model of stress using the concept of appraisal. This appraisal theory must be considered when looking at the potential sources of stress, as due to its subjective nature, not every individual will find the same things stressful. Each person has strengths and weaknesses resulting from a combination of genetic and experience factors. In what is known as a ‘person environment fit’ (Lazarus and Launier, 1978), a stress response is determined by whether or not an interaction between an individual and their environment was interpreted as being stressful by that individual. This is known as primary appraisal.