They are closely related and can often overlap. Schraw, Crippen, and Hartley (2010) elaborated upon the definition of metacognition: “Knowledge of cognition includes the awareness of what one knows, how one learns, what strategies one knows, and when one implements strategies. Regulation of cognition includes planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Planning involves one’s connection to previous knowledge, plan for using strategies, and use of time. Monitoring is one’s self-checking at each stage of the task.
He also states that during the process of growth and change, training is the easy part of effective professional development. Jacob Kounin turned his attention on a study of the practical problem of classroom management, from the standpoint of technology. But Fred Jones talks about tools for teaching implements response to intervention where it is a multi-level system that focuses on the prevention of learning problems. It is designed to develop capacity for identifying, adapting and sustaining effective instructional practices. Dr. Jones has developed methods of classroom management that are both powerful and affordable for all teachers.
I was particularly struck by the distinction between different modes of delivering curriculum and in particular the contrast between Product and Process methods, in curriculum development. At this point it might be useful to analyse the distinction between these two processes. Neary identifies the Product Model as one that “emphasises plans and intentions” whereas in the Process Model, the emphasis is on the “activities and effects” (O’Neill 2015, p27). In essence therefore the Product Model can be regarded as a more traditional and historically tested method of developing curriculum. The work of John Franklin Bobbitt and Ralph Tyler very much advocate Product curricular designs, maintaining that these designs are centred on the creation of a disciplined and “structured learning environment for students” (O’Neill 2015, p).
These adjustments help to ensure students achieve, targeted standards-based learning goals within a set time frame. Although formative assessment strategies appear in a variety of formats, there are some distinct ways to distinguish them from summative assessments. We do not hold students accountable in "grade book fashion" for skills and concepts they have just been introduced to or are learning. The formative assessment will help our teachers determine next steps during the learning process as the instruction approaches the summative assessment of student
Thinking instructional design as a concept of system or ‘a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together toward some common goal’ (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) Instructional designer should be aware of other system discipline. Learning theory This theory informs a ‘change in human disposition or capability that persists over a period of time and is not simply ascribable to processes of growth’ (Gagne, 1985, p. 2) It helps instructional designers when designing from a: • Behaviourist and/or cognitivist stance, the designer analyses the situation and sets a goal. • Constructivist approach requires that the designer produces a product that is much more facilitative in nature than
Individual experience is interwoven with education, and it is artificial to divorce one from the other. This philosophy of education liberates minds instead of confining them to certain standards and thinking. Using this approach, one is supporting a changing
“The focus on outputs rather than on inputs to learning is central to the competencies perspective.” (Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 141). Competency based learning is an objective-based learning. It has a number of advantages. It focuses learners, especially on learners ' target needs (necessities) with the application of criterion reference assessment, therefore learning takes place in effective and efficient ways since objectives and materials are based on learners ' need, because of well-defined objectives in course descriptions.” (Drs. I Made Sujana,
According to Wagner, humanistic approach is primarily a reaction to the two major views of humanity which are the Freudian perspective and the behavioral perspective thus humanitaristic approach is the “third force”. Humanistic approach highly gives emphasis to the individual that learning how to learn is more important than acquiring factual knowledge. Teachers can play their role in helping the students how to learn and their thinking gives emphasis rather than teachers’ teaching determination. Likewise, the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory is also a very useful model for developing any systematic approach for nurturing and training learners and respecting their individual needs and strengths within a classroom setting. According to Emmer and Evertson (2009) multiple intelligence aids teachers in easily creating more personalized and diversified instructional experiences.
Self-determination theory (SDT) assumes that inherent in human nature is the propensity to be curious about one’s environment and interest in learning and developing one’s knowledge (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). However, educators introduce external controls into learning climates, which can undermine the sense of relatedness between teachers and students, and stifle the natural, volitional processes involved in high-quality learning (Wroten, 2014). The theory identifies that students are intrinsically motivated to learn and that educators should capitalize on this desire when designing instructions. Further, SDT suggests that teachers can capitalize on internal motivation by supporting student curiosity and their desire for autonomy. If educators can find ways to support autonomous motivation in the delivery of instruction, then optimal learning can be achieved (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009).
Change is inevitable in education as in all areas . Shifting perspectives within education and efforts of reform within it can be considered as educational change . The process of adapting or becoming used to the new ideas and meeting the needs of educational change require considerable efforts. This educational change can be a threat, opportunity, problem or neutral depending on our viewpoint. Introduction of these educational changes like school reform, teaching and teacher professionalism is possible through new curricula.