Although, the ribosome is the smallest organelle but its function is one of the most important functions of the cells. It is responsible for synthesis many different proteins. There are two major types of ribosomes, free and membrane-bound ribosomes. Free ribosomes are floating around the cytosol of the cells while the membrane-bound ribosomes are attached to either nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, both of these types of ribosomes are identical to each other in their
Scheme of a liposome formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution. The stable membranes are naturally found to be made up of bi layers of phospholipids. When water is present the head group gets attracted to water and they make up to form a surface which faces the water where as the tail group is repelled by it and they form a surface away from the water. So in a cell we can observe that one layer will have its heads facing outer side of the cell i.e attracted to the environment's water where as the other layer will be facing the inner side of the cell attracted to the water which is in the cell. Both the hydrocarbon layers face each other to give an appearance of bilayer.33 If there is a disruption of the phospholipid membrane then they
Interdependence of Sub-cellular organelles Introduction Endomembrane system in Protein Synthesis The interior of a eukaryotic cell is packed with membranes so thin that they are totally invisible under the low resolving power of a light microscope. The endomembrane system fills the cell dividing it into compartments, channeling the passage of molecules through the interior of the cell, and providing surfaces for the synthesis of lipids and some proteins. The presence of these membranes in eukaryotic cells constitutes one of the most fundamental distinctions between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. (Johnson et al, 2010) Endomembrane system functions in a wide range of processes inside the cell. One of its main functions is the modification, packaging and transport of proteins, especially those aimed at the plasma membrane or for secretion from the cell.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION: These lipase enzymes have a widespread biological activity in biological processes from usual metabolism of dietary triglycerides to signalling pathways and inflammatory mechanisms. Thus they are both intracellular and extracellular. 1. Lysosome cell organelle has
A skeleton is a structure made out of bones which protect our internal organs. The skeleton serves five major functions; support, movement, protection, production of blood cells, storage of minerals. Without our skeleton our body would have no shape. We wouldn’t be able to move and we would be floppy like a sheet. We wouldn't be able to hear anything because the vibrations from outside cannot be passed on to the cochlea and eventually to the brain.
This is an organelle in eukaryotes that rids the cells of toxic substances, so it contains a high concentration of catalase to speed up the breakdown of the toxic material. Catalase is a common enzyme present in most all living organisms and a very potent catalyst. Catalase converts the harmful byproduct of metabolism, Hydrogen Peroxide, into water and oxygen. It also oxidizes toxins in the body such as formaldehyde, alcohols, phenols and formic acid. Factors that Influence Enzyme Function There are several factors that affect the enzyme function as well as the rate at which the enzyme reactions proceed.
Digestion of materials by endocytosis: Lysosomes may fuse with vesicles or vacuoles formed by endocytosis and release their enzymes into it for digestion. The material for digestion may be food (protozoa) or a foreign body like parasite (defense purpose) .The products of digestion are absorbed and assimilated leaving undigested which are released outside through exocytosis (vacuole migrates and attach with cell membrane and release its contents). 2. Autophagy: process by which unwanted structures within the cell are engulfed and digested within lysosomes .they first enclose by single membrane ,usually derived from smooth ER and structure then fuses with a lysosomes to form an “autophagic vacuole”, In which the unwanted material are digested. This is part of the normal turnover of cytoplasm organelles replacing older with new ones.
1.Introduction: Ox diazole, a heterocycles nucleus has attracted a wide attention of the chemist in search for new therapeutic molecules.Five member heterocycles compounds show various type of biological activities among than 2,5-distributed 1,3,4-ox diazole are associated with diverse biological activities . Various biological activities like antimicrobial, anti-tubercular, anti-inflammatory, Anticonvulsant , Hypnotic , Anesthetic activity . 1,3,4-ox diazole showed antibacterial properties similar to those of well known sulfonamide drugs. The ox diazole nucleus with N=C-S linkage exhibits a large number of pharmacological activities . Sulfone derivatives containing heterocycles moiety are known for their interesting
They can impart localised structural rigidity, confer cytotoxicity by alkylation, or be secondary metabolites . The chemistry of epoxides is dominated by the reactions that involve opening of the strained three-membered heterocyclic ring by nucleophiles. Such reactions yield valuable bifunctional compounds. In nature, epoxide ring opening is catalysed by the phenolic proton of a tyrosine moiety . But in laboratory, the cleavage usually occurs in non-aqueous media in presence of a Lewis acid catalyst like Al2O3, Li+, Mg2+ etc.
Cytoskeletons are common for every living organisms present, be it bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes or prokaryotes. It is present in the cytoplasm of a cell and has a very complex network that consists of tubules and filaments that interlink each other1. Cytoskeletons are comprised of three main proteins in eukaryotes and they are usually able to multiply very fast or even disassemble depending on what the cell needs at any given moment.2 The structures of cytoskeletons can differ from one another and is dependant on the type of the cell as well as the organism it is in. 3 Cytoskeletons can perform a wide range of tasks. Primarily, its main purpose is to give a cell its shape and to mechanically resist it from deforming and also assists to make