In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
Other theories which underpins authentic assessment is Experiential Learning Theory by David Kolb and Situated Learning Theory which was theorized by Lave and Wenger. Experiential learning occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Concrete experiences provide the information that serves as a basis for reflection. On the other hand, Situated Learning Theory is learning in the same contexts in which concepts and theories are applied. Research has shown that real-life applied activities and problem-solving activities establish a contextual setting for many lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity.
This study is embedded in the social Learning Theory. Social Learning Theory (SLT) is a combination of social, cognitive and behavioural features because it involves motivation, attention and memory (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013). SLT was initially developed by Albert Bandura. SLT submits that learners observe, imitate and exhibit trainer performed behaviours: these attributes make SLT valuable in skills acquisitions, especially in Technical and Vocational Education. 1.6.0.
Conflict, differences, and disagreement are what drive the learning process. In the process of learning one is called upon to move back and forth between opposing modes of reflection and action and feeling and thinking. 4) Learning is a holistic process of adaptation. It is not just the result of cognition but involves the integrated functioning of the total person – thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. It encompasses other specialized models of adaptation from the scientific method to problems solving, decision making and creativity.
Based on the assumptions of socio-constructivist theories of learning, educators attempted to re-conceptualize teaching as a profession (Murray, 1996), which might be facilitated via reflective teaching learning practices. According to these theories, teaching has to start in student teachers’ reflective learning practices at the teacher education (Ostorga, 2006). Learning at the teacher education, moreover, is promoted when teacher candidates are provided with multiple learning opportunities to apply what they have learnt in meaningful contexts (Edward et al, 2002; Merrill, 2002) through the applications and integrations of classroom knowledge with actual teaching practices. This has to be initiated and accomplished through exercising reflective
The approach facilitates rapid prototyping, as it values a set of instructions that are as holistic as possible to promote meaningfulness and motivation. Situated cognition is an approach that emphasizes that people’s knowledge is constructed and linked to activity, context and culture within which it was learned (Kalat, 2011). Learning is social and not isolated, as people learn while interacting with one another through communication, among other shared
The Overview Constructivist approach explains the ways in which learners make their own personal senses of learning tasks, the environment, the teacher, and the actual process of learning (Vygotsky, 1962). Constructivism has potent nexus with humanism, as both are concerned with the individual’s search for personal meaning. Humanistic approaches underscore the significance of innermost vale of learner and put the individuals at the forefront of all human development. Each learner is deemed as a whole person. He or she assumes his/ her inner world of thought and feeling in relation to others in an individualized learning to become a more active, successful, and well-rounded individual while interacting and cooperating with other learners.
Additionally, the tasks need to be constructive and interlinked and provide a challenge to the students while also acting as a motivation factor. The adopting of effective teaching to match the personal strengths of the students ensures that a student’s learning outcome is achieved Holistic assessment should be encouraged to understand what the learner has captured on a learning
Learning theories are conceptual framework describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained. Behaviourists look at learning as an aspect of conditioning and will advocate a system of rewards and targets in education. Educators who embrace cognitive theory believe that the definition of learning as a change in behaviour is too narrow and prefer to study the learner rather than their environment and in particular the complexities of human memory. Meaning and Nature: Learning is a key process in human behaviour.
Introduction A theory of learning by J.Novack, “Meaningful learning underline the constructive integration of thinking, feeling, and acting leading to empowerment for commitment and responsibility.” This showed that meaningful learning is the key concept of the education, which students and teachers had to negotiate and integrate to know and fully understand the knowledge or fact. J.Novack, (2010), had also claimed that the central purpose of education is to empower learners to take a change of their own meaning making. Therefore, teaching and learning process has to take place to inspire, motivate, and suit the learners to construct their own cognitive to learn and make learning meaningful. This can only happen if the learners can relate new information to ideas the learners already knows. The learner became better or different from the others was based on the concept attainment of the new material and the quality and the quantity of the relevant knowledge that learners gained as meaningful learning.