TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Distillation Distillation is used to remove impurities from a mixture – one component of which must be a liquid. Boiling points are utilized in determining the identity of the unknowns. Types of distillation include
That being said, in the fractional distillation, the rings act as the trials in the simple distillation (Gilbert 126). The rings increase surface area therefore it is a lot easier for the less volatile compound (acetone) to flow down the column with a greater level of separation (Gilbert
All the mobile ions get attached to the opposite charge of the stationary phase resin molecules. This happens when the right buffer conditions are applied. When this kind of conditions are successful where ions are completely attached to the resin, then equilibrium is said to have reached. Sample Application –The sample is loaded inside the column using a syringe, typically. The neutral proteins or the one with similar charge as the resin will get eluted and the ones with the opposite charge get attached to the resin
INTRODUCTION A gas chromatograph (GC) can be utilized to analyze the contents of a sample quantitatively or in certain circumstances also qualitatively. In the case of preparative chromatography, a pure compound can be extracted from a mixture. The principle of gas chromatography can be explained as following: A micro syringe is used to inject a known volume of vaporous or liquid analyte into the head or entrance of a column whereby a stream of an inert gas acts a carrier (mobile phase). The column acts as a separator of individual or chemically similar components. A column is typically packed with a stationary non-volatile matter (stationary phase).
The average result obtained was 22.5% and is close to it’s literal value. This experiment had also proven to have shown effective transfer of solids and liquids as values of 1st and 2nd results, namely 22% and 23% respectively, were similar thereby showing consistency in results. Phenolphthalein indicator was proven to be more suitable as an indicator as compared to Methyl Orange in this experiment. This is because Phenolphthalein the pH values of HCl involved in this experiment were in range of the pH values that bring about colour change in the Phenolphthalein indicators. (Approximate pH ranges for color change: 8.0-9.8) Low pH values are preferred for Methyl Orange.
Once AMD reached the coveted pH level, it was filtered using filter paper (0.45 μm) to obtain the precipitate. The filtrates were then measured for the EC level using conductivity meter, TDS level using TDS meter, and concentration of Cu2+ using PerkinElmer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Analyst 400. All analyses were conducted in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Mataram. Filtrates (with several pH levels) found to still contain Cu2+, would be treated to the sulfidization treatment. Sulfidization treatment using SNW from Sebau This experiment was conducted by adding pure SNW from three sampling points (T1, T2, and T3) to the AMD with three different pH levels in 1:1 ratio reaction.
I can now calculate the density (aka the concentration), of them before and after. Then I can take the change in density over the change in time to determine the rate of chemical reaction. This is because a chemical reaction will affect a solution’s concentration, and to determine the rate, I just need to factor time into the scenario. Furthermore, I can do this multiple times, all with different concentrations of HCl and different amounts of calcium carbonate (as it is diluted in water, and water has a different mass than the acid), to determine how the original concentration of HCl affects the rate. Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that the rate can be measured as ∆ρ/∆t=rate of reaction Additionally, I hypothesize that I can use variations of the original concentration of the solution of HCl with water to figure out how the original concentration changes rate of reaction.
Chromatography means "color writing" literally from the Greek words chroma and graphe. It is a separating technique for a mixture of chemicals, which can be in gas or liquid form, by letting them creep slowly past another substance. There are two important things in chromatography that is it must has one state of matter such as gas or liquid, that is known as mobile phase, moving over the surface of another state of matter which can be liquid or solid that stays where it is that is known as stationary phase. As the mobile phase moves, it separates out into its components on the stationary phase and identify one by one afterwards. (1) The development of Gas Chromatography (GC) to be an analytical technique to separate the components of a mixture
Equimolar solutions of both the drug and NBD-Cl reagent (1×10-3 M) and (1×10-2 M) were prepared for method I and method II respectively. Then portions of mixture of master solutions of the drug and reagent were mixed comprising different complementary proportions. Either the relative fluorescence intensity or the absorbance were measured. A blank experiment was carried out simultaneously. The stoichiometry between the drug and NBD-Cl reagent by both methods as shown in Figure 8, it is clear that the ratio is 1:1.