Work motivation is not property of either the individual or the environment, but rather the psychological mechanisms and process that connect them. Ruth Kanfer, Gilad Chen, and Robert Pritchard, (2008) more precisely defined work motivation as the set of processes that determine a person’s intention to allocate personal resources across a range of possible action. This definition emphasizes the distributional aspect of motivation, and accounts for the critical process by which an individual exerts control over his behaviour. As Pritchard and Ashwood (2007) note, motivational control over behaviour is achieved largely through allocation of resources across actions. This is significant because often motivation is not actually measured; instead performance is used as a proxy measure of motivation.
SDT focuses on people’s inner motivation. SDT assumes that people naturally self-motivate themselves and that success inherently is the greatest reward, not just external rewards or outcomes. The theory also recognizes that people can become stagnant and passive in their behavior. SDT accounts for this division by examining
A striking example of contrasting outlooks between them can be found in the foundation of their theories. For instance, Maslow’s theory is centred around the concept of basic human wants and our need to satisfy them in a hierarchical fashion. He states that individual needs are prioritised and that one must satisfy the first set to move onto the second and so forth. However, in contrast to this, Herzberg refers to his two sets of factors (hygiene and motivating) as ones that need be accomplished, but in no particular order. He recognises both sets of factors are important in achieving employee motivation but that there is no particular order in which they must be fulfilled, as the end goal is to satisfy all
• To add to a base for merit or performance-related pay. Characteristics of job evaluation The essential goal of job evaluation is to figure out the value of work; however this is a quality which differs occasionally and from spot to place affected by certain economic pressure. The principle features of job evaluation are: • To supply bases for compensation arrangement established on realities as opposed to on dubious moderate thoughts. • It endeavors to assess jobs, not individuals. • Job evaluation is the yield given by job analysis.
Combination of psychological, physiological and environment conditions which satisfies a person from the job is job satisfaction (Hoppock, 1935). Initial definitions consider job satisfaction as constructive or destructive attitude which results due to specific work areas, such as job factors and individual traits (Blum & Naylor, 1968). According to Hammer and Organ (1978), satisfaction is “a person’s attitude toward an object….that represents a complex assemblage of cognitions (beliefs or knowledge), emotions (feelings, sentiments or evaluations), and behavioral tendencies” (Hammer& Organ, 1978, p. 216). Reed, Lahey and Downey, (1984) describe “satisfaction in terms of subjective, personal experience, evaluative in time, and involving effect or feeling on the part of the individual.” (Reed.Lahey & Downey, 1984, p. 68). Job satisfaction is a positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics (Robbins,Coulter& Vohra, 2010).
not a motivator of work behavior: This essay shall discuss whether money is a motivator of work behavior. Money is a reward that encourages more efficient working behavior however an employee must be satisfied with their job in order to work well. A reward system should make provision for intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to create an environment that employees will feel motivated to archive their goals. Money motivates employees to “work to live” (a). It is a motivator if employees perceive good performance result in monetary value.
He was the first to show that factors causing job satisfaction were different from that causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory; he called the satisfying factors motivators and the dissatisfying hygiene factors. According to Sapru (2013), the two factor theory is a theory that relates to intrinsic factors to job satisfaction, while associating extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. To find the individual’s relation and attitude to work, Herzberg investigated the question: “What do people want from their job?” According to Hertzberg certain attributes tend to be consistently related to job satisfaction and other to job dissatisfaction. For instance, intrinsic factors such as responsibilities, achievement, recognition and advancement seem related to job satisfaction.
Work motivation, can be further distinguished between intrinsic motivation (i.e., doing an activity for its own sake because one finds the activity inherently interesting and satisfying) and extrinsic motivation (i.e., doing an activity for an instrumental reason) (Ryan & Deci, 2000) (Trembley, Blanchard, Taylor, Pelletier, & Villeneuve, 2009). Extrinsic motivation leads to satisfaction of employee needs indirectly through monetary compensation and has been found to be significant predictor of performance of R&D professionals (Manolopoulos,
Three specific theories were formulated during this time, which although heavily attacked and now questionable in terms of validity, are probably still the best know explanations for employee motivation. These are the hierarchy of needs theory, theories of x and y, and the motivation hygiene theory. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: - Abraham Maslow suggests that a person is motivated by an inner program of needs rather than by external motives such as rewards or punishments. When one of these sets of needs is met we move onto the next. Maslow thought that once a need is met it can no longer be a motivator.
Motivation is that internal drive that causes an individual to decide to take action. Monetary Incentive: is a money-based reward given when an employee meets or exceeds expectations. Non-Monetary Incentive: is Compensation given in a transaction which does not involve cash. Job Promotion: is the advancement of an employee within a company position or job tasks. Organizational Communication: is a process by which activities of a society are collected and coordinated to reach the goals of both individuals and the collective group Job Security: Assurance (or lack of it) that an employee has about the continuity of gainful employment for his or her work life.