Pro poor tourism is one of approach of tourism which aims at directing the net benefits of tourism to the poor people. It ensures that the tourism sector contributes in poverty reduction. It provides the opportunity to the poor to gain economic strength and other livelihood benefits. It is an approach which should not be confused with eco tourism and community based tourism although the latter can serve the purpose of pro poor tourism. However two terms; pro poor tourism and sustainable tourism may overlap.
Tourists contribute to sales, profits, jobs, tax revenues, and income of their destination. Primary, tourism sectors such as lodging, dining, transportation, amusements, and retail trade are affected directly. Through secondary effects, tourism effects most sectors of the economy. Bulter (2001) reported “The seasonality can affect both the tourism industry and other sectors. Their data shows the negative impact of seasonality is emphasized over the positive, but there is also a positive aspect regarding seasonality.
Tourism also helps in alleviation of poverty in mostly developing countries where tourism is the main source of income. Development of infrastructures such as roads, schools, hospitals airports, and retail areas have the potential to benefit local community and can assist economic development through more trade and better flow of goods and services. (The Responsible Traveler Guide,
Chapter 6: What are the consequences, for your type of tourism, regarding the 3Ps? This chapter discusses the definition of the 3 P's and how they apply to voluntourism People, planet, profit. Three levels of Sustainability by Cavagnaro & Curiel, (2012) ♣ People Zhao and Ritchie, (2007) describe the fact that local residents and destinations can benefit from the volunteers who stay with and work. with things like restoring old buildings, or building important living needs. But a destination can also make profit of the point that the volunteers are spending money in the local villages.
Household spending patterns are caused by changes in income generated from the direct and indirect effects where tourist spend their income on transportation, food, housing and product and services in that particular region. Changes in tourist spending can impacts virtually in every sector of the economy in one way or another. This occurs when the tourist spends money into the local economy, for example, whenever they purchase souvenir made by a local at the tourism destination, the supplier then goes on to spend that money in some way at a local vendor and that vendor goes on to spend it locally and the process continues. Say that to say this, induced effects capture the way in which this increased income is in turn spent in the local economy of the travel and tourism
Tourism Impacts Tourism is an activity that can cause may impacts in one destination, according United Nations Environment Program (UNEP, 2015) the tourism impacts are divided in three types: economics, environmental and sociocultural impacts. 1) Economic Impacts: The economic impacts that tourism generates can be positive or negative. The positive impacts are that it creates jobs, appears new economic activities and companies, increasing demand of local products, higher infrastructures development, increase state benefits and it contributes to the development of the local economies. The negative impacts are that the jobs are seasonal jobs with a low salary, inflation increases caused for the tourists that has a higher acquisitive level than the local people, rising price of land and housing, the economy depends overmuch on tourism and the tourism benefits falls into the foreigner companies. Tourism development can cost the local government and local taxpayers a huge amount of money.
However, according to the thriving of tourism, it has been negotiated by scholars whether tourism is bad or good. Because the impacts of tourism have generated both positive and negative outcomes to the destination. It can be said that tourism generates the growth in economics and improves the living of the local by providing facilities and infrastructure. On the other hand, some people argue that tourism has negatively generated socio-cultural impacts and caused several environmental problems. In my point of view, everything has its pros and cons; there is nothing in this world has only a positive side, there is always the drawbacks in contrast with its benefits, and so does tourism.
The first consequence worth consideration is the creation of employment and the redistribution of income. Emigration from a rural area can be reduced when jobs are brought directly into the economy. Not only people directly employed in the industry beneficiate from this, however, the distributors and also the ones who guard the traditional crafts experience a rise in business. It can also push the protection or even the rebirth of local practices and festivals. It might also improve the attachment of the locals to their heritage.
2.1. Effect of Tourism on Local Livelihood According to an article made by Simpson (2007), a structured integrated assessment approach to assess the effect of initiatives that purport to deliver net livelihood benefits to communities living adjacent to or within the tourism destination. However, it has been difficult to assess the success of initiatives that aim to benefit local communities and the environment while also being financially viable (Ashley, 2002; United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2004). One of the most problematic areas has been to quantify the impacts of tourism on communities and local livelihoods. Enhancing livelihoods and maximizing benefits to communities involve the expansion and use of local labor, local goods, and services and also developing appropriate and sustainable infrastructure, supportive policies, and environmental strategies (Scoones, 1998; Department for International Development, 1999; Long, 2004; Simpson, 2008).
Further we can also see some impacts of tourism in Himachal Pradesh. Some eminent researchers tried to bring those impacts of tourism on the socio-cultural life of the people and on physical environment to the fore front. Most of the researches concerned their studies to the main tourists receiving areas of Himachal Pradesh. Tej Vir Singh (1989) raises questions about the concentration of tourism that is taking place around Manali and made recommendations for a more integrated approach to tourism development that would disperse tourism activities more evenly throughout the year. Further, some positive impacts have been studied by some scholars.