In “Literacy in Three Metaphors,” Sylvia Scribner tries to define and explain what literacy really is. Scribner says that literacy as a notion may be defined in many different ways, and I agree with this statement. She states that it depends on a particular society and certain standards of this society. Scribner offers the solution to the problem of defining literacy. This solution consists of examining and discussing the three metaphors: literacy as adaptation, literacy as power and literacy as a state of grace.
Like Mark Mathabane his parents sacrificed a lot for their sons education. He mentions “If, because of my schooling, I had grown culturally separated from my parents, my education finally had given me ways of speaking and caring about that fact.” (1) This shows that his childhood had a huge impact on the way he looked at education and literacy. Due to his situation he was even more intrigued in reading. The only thing that made him uncomfortable about reading by himself was the feeling of ¨loneliness”.
The layout shows the reader the development of literacy theories from Early Theories and Models Applicable to Reading through the 21st century. It was interesting to see some of the theories overlapping each other and some of the theories were developed upon by other scholars. For example, the Schema Theory was developed further by Louise Rosenblatt’s Transactional Theory. Background of Authors
How the education system for youth is constantly debated on and often people fall into two groups, those who have power and those who don’t. This creates a divide in what the a child’s education should be focus on, the good of the society by filling its needs or the individual to help them succeed. Public education has the tough job of having to balance these under financial constraints that make it unrealistic to have a perfect system. Because it requires less financial resources, public schooling has become less focused on each individual and more society’s needs. David Larabee argues that “[schools remain] publicly funded, publicly controlled, and radically decentralized which [focus] more on being accessible than on teaching the curriculum.”
Part of my literacy experience was about learning an important lesson in a book and how each page carries a story that’s brought to life. At the time, I didn’t learn about learning critical literacy until I was in my English 91 class. In my English 91 class, I was taught how to use critical thinking in my papers. I imagine how much literacy has been involve in my life from childhood till college. The books I’ve read in my childhood is how I ‘ve taught how to write.
In her essay "Does Texting Affect Writing?", Michaela Cullington presents her argument that texting does not impact formal writing written by students. She discusses the concerns presented by many people about how texting language can transfer into writing, but through the use of personal experiences and credible sources she discusses how this is not true. Her use of multiple different studies and situations help boost her argument and allow the reader to truly see how students actually do formal writing. She presents a strong argument as to why those who believe students don't have the control and knowledge to write formally, instead of with text speak, are wrong.
In her text, “Cognition, Convention and Certainty,” Patricia Bizzell describes the writing process through both inner-directed and outer-directed theories in order to illustrate that the writing process is infirmed by both student’s natural thought processes and their discourse community She uses her text to explain both theories, and to argue for the implementation of a new pedagogy focused on discourse analysis. First, Bizzell introduces the inner –directed theory, which seeks to discover the writing processes through the universal and fundamental structure of language. Conversely, she explains that the outer-directed theory instead argues that the individual’s discourse community does not teach a generalized form of language but rather the
Throughout generations cultural traditions have been passed down, alongside these traditions came language. The language of ancestors, which soon began to be molded by the tongue of newer generations, was inherited. Though language is an everlasting changing part of the world, it is a representation of one’s identity, not only in a cultural way but from an environmental standpoint as well. One’s identity is revealed through language from an environmental point of view because the world that one is surrounded with can cause them to have their own definitions of words, an accent, etc. With newer generations, comes newer forms of languages.
When someone is guided in their literacy development and they are impacted in a positive way, they often can become more successful in the field of literacy, which can lead you to a successful life with good social standings, understandings, and power. When someone has what literacy scholar Deborah Brandt calls a “literacy sponsor” they will tend to become more successful in their experiences with literacy. Sponsors of literacy, according to Brandt, are beneficial because they are well educated, have experience in the field of literacy, and are willing to help others improve and let them into the world of literacy. Specifically, Brandt states in her scholarly article “Sponsors of Literacy” that “Literacy as a resource becomes available to ordinary
The United States’ school system is based on compulsory education laws which required children from 6 to 16 years of age to assist public or private school, for a certain number of years (“Compulsory Education”, 2015). In the past, these laws were put in effect to increase literacy rates and to avoid child labor practice. Unfortunately, there are many people against mandatory public education in America. This is the case of a former New York City teacher, John Taylor Gatto, who in his article “Against School”, he expresses why he believes that the school system is ineffective in helping students to develop their full potential.
Neil Postman, an author of “the Judgement of Thamus,” addresses the profound truth, we in our age are confronted with, as well as the belief that information equals knowledge and knowledge equal wisdom. In addition, Thamus mentions the deficiencies to memory writing. He makes inaccurate judgements stating that writing would only be a burden to society. However, he doesn’t understand that there are indeed many benefits of writing to society.
1) The thesis is that language is an instrument which we can shape however we want to meet our purposes. 2) He states that because writing is a tool, politicians have seemed to molded it to their designs; therefore convincing people of certain actions. 3) The process of poor writing and thinking is reversible. Clear genuine language, will support clear thinking.
A discourse in this understanding is not based on the classical distinction between thought and action, it “(…) is about the production of knowledge through language. But it is itself produced by a practice: “discursive practice” – the practice of producing meaning” (Hall, 2006:165). It follows that because all social practices involve meaning, all practices necessarily have a discursive side. A discourse is comparable to what sociologists would call an ‘ideology’. It is composed of statements and/or beliefs that shape knowledge in the interest of one particular group.