So where is the USA on human cloning? Human cloning is legal in the U.S., but there are some Federal prohibitions against research. The George W. Bush regime was especially difficult, and Barack Obama ended the ban on embryonic stem cell research, while remaining opposed to human cloning. Stanford formed a stem cell institute in 2003 and Harvard initiated efforts to clone human embryos in 2006. They initially were attempting to fund this work with private donors without any government assistance.
The fact that the cells may come from embryos is not an objection, because the embryos are going to die anyway.” (Stephen Hawking) There are multiple pros and cons to stem cell research. Some pros might be the innovative idea about stem cell research which is primarily due to the medical benefits in areas of regenerative medicine and therapeutic cloning. Stem cells provide huge potential for finding treatments and cures to a vast array of diseases including different cancers, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, Alzheimer's, MS, Huntington's, Parkinson's and more. There is endless potential for scientists to learn about human growth and cell development from studying stem cells. Some cons might be that the stem cells primarily come from terminated pregnancy.
Even so, prohibiting the successive evolution of genetic engineering is not a solution, and I do not agree that its further development should be banned. First of all, as stated above, the scope of genetic engineering is so extensive that most likely in the nearest future the lifetime extension will be a typical picture (“Pros and Cons,” 2017). To better understand the ever-growing potential of genetic engineering, let’s take a look at what is already conducted. Thanks to genetic engineering, the pharmaceutical products being implemented today are supreme to what was available to the humanity before. This became possible through gene cloning.
As our world becomes increasingly technologically advanced, biotechnology plays an increasing important aspect of our lives. Many contemporary uses of biotechnology raise ethical considerations, regarding their safety, reliability and moral concerns. The Human Genome Project gave us the ability to identify and map the complete genetic blueprint of a human. It was the world’s largest collaborative biological project and determined the sequence of chemical base pairs, including multiple variations of each gene in the human body. Understanding the human genome improved our understanding of diseases and gave us the ability to more accurately identify mutations and viruses, predict their effects and design appropriate medication.
Microscopes were also created and they opened up a new perspective in the medical field. They created new possibilities for surgeries involving the heart, ear, and other potentially problematic areas. The new medical inventions for the war saved many lives and still continue to be widely used
But he doubts that's a compelling enough reason to undertake the extensive and costly effort needed to get such a procedure approved, at least for "decades and decades." Marcy Darnovsky, executive director of the Center for Genetics and Society in Berkeley, California, called it unethical to subject that new child to "the psychological and emotional risks of living under the shadow of its genetic predecessor." Human cloning could also require many women to donate eggs and to serve as surrogates, she said. At the moment, because of safety concerns, federal regulators in the U.S. would not allow making a human baby by cloning, and international scientific groups also oppose it, said biomedical ethics expert Insoo Hyun of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals condemned the monkey-cloning experiments.
Several European countries, including France, Germany and Switzerland, have banned the creation of cloned human embryos for reproductive or therapeutic purposes. England, Singapore, Sweden, China and Israel allow cloning for research, but prohibit it for reproduction”. Each Country has specific and similar reasons as why cloning is prohibited. The main concern is moral rights and the unanswered question: are they human? When trying to figure out if clones have to obey the same laws as non-clones, the discussion becomes difficult.
Stem Cell Therapy Research There are many pros and cons to stem cell therapy. If stem cell therapy can help patients who suffer from diseases that is no cure then why not use it? There have been cases that have helped patients with parkinson’s disease, autoimmune, alzheimers, heart attacks, etc.. Of course, like all other forms of medical treatments there are side effects: the cells not taking, sickness from the therapy, but the biggest is seen when embryonic stem cells are used. I personally see no issue in using adult or umbilical stem cells. There are families who have children with chronic illnesses who need their umbilical cords harvested so that later in life, the cells can help save them.
On the other hand, proponents of animal experimentation claim that there are no useful alternatives. Cohen points out that useful alternatives have not been established yet (2). For example, tissue samples were inspected as alternatives; yet, it did not work because people should test vaccine as living organs which is complicated. Therefore, Cohen points out that, “We can learn [the full organic effect] only by studying the outcome of its use on live animals who are not human” (2). In other words, living animals are the only non-human creatures that can get the results about the reaction of vaccines, such as side effects.
Modern medicine utilizes medications and surgical procedures to induce abortion. The debate over whether or not abortion should be a legal option continues to divide Americans long after the US Supreme Court 's 7-2 decision on Roe v. Wade declared the procedure a "fundamental right" on Jan. 22, 1973. America’s founding principles made no reference to rights of the unborn, as the bishops assert. It is dishonest to attempt to make the phrase in the Declaration of Independence about the “laws of Nature and of Nature’s God” mean what the pope means by natural law. It is also dishonest to assert that “all men are created equal” refers to male and female fetuses, when it didn’t even refer to slaves and women as having equal rights.