In the mid 1800s, psychology was flourishing. Seemingly each new psychologist would often research mental phenomena with a slightly different perspective. In the 1890s, Edward Titchener brought Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology to the United States of America, establishing what is now known as structuralism. Generally, structuralists believe that everything within conscious experience is merely a combination of mental ingredients, which can be parsed apart via introspection (Hergenhan, 2017). Around the same time, a new school known as functionalism began to develop.
This intellectual movement was in vogue in 1970s. Structuralism, in fact, was born from the linguistics of FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE. SAUSSURE wrote COURSE IN GENERAL LINGUISTICS (1915). Structuralism is a distinct way of thinking about the world. It is related to the perceptions and description of structures.
John B. Watson Theory of behaviorism: The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson 's classic paper, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913). Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors.
For a structuralist, meaning comes through knowing how things fit together, not from understanding things in isolation” (p. 120). Furthermore, according to McGee and Warms (2008), “[s]tructuralists believe that cultural phenomena are the product of universal logical processes that organize human thought. And a fundamental characteristic of human thought, according to structuralists, is to sort data into binary oppositions” (p. 346). This notion of a binary structure was pioneered by the Prague School of linguists, whose theories greatly influenced Levi-Strauss’ structuralism. One key insight of the Prague School was that “words were built upon contrasts (binary oppositions) between phonemes rather
Behaviorists used scientific methodology, and empirical research to validate their study as a social science. The behaviorist approach was innovative because it moved toward research that was supported by verifiable facts. The international relations benefited from the behaviorism in the construction of many theories. As against the classical realism, behaviorism provided a light that helped its continuity and relevance as satisfactory theory of the international
In this paper I am going to present a debate between two approaches developed in the course of the 90s: structural-functionalism and practice theory. What I am trying to grasp is whether these two approaches are similar and/or different, but especially understanding how they both address the study of socio-cultural systems as a whole on one hand, and the study of individual subjectivities on the other. From the names and brief descriptions of these two approaches one is drove to think that structural-functionalism, which focuses on the study of the structures in society understood as the continuing arrangements of persons in relationships defined or controlled by institutions (Radcliffe-Brown 2013:182), is concerned most on studying socio-cultural system as a whole, while practice theory, which focuses on people’s capacity to make and transform the world in which they live, is more about the study of individual subjectivities. But the relation of these two approaches is actually more complicated than that. Let’s see why.
Behaviorist theory is about learning by repetition, the more the repetition the more the person will learn. The behaviorist theory tells that the human being can acquire all behaviors and habits through conditions that happen during the interaction with what has surrounded them or ‘the environment’. Behaviorists believe that human responses to environmental stimuli shape their behaviors. According to Schuman “Behaviorism” the behaviorist theory focuses on a new behavioral pattern that it’s repeated until it becomes a habit. Pavlov’s experiment was about repetition, he trained a dog by ringing a bell in some kind of a situation procedure.
Firstly, the authors reviewed from many studies and research papers of sociolinguistics, structuralism and poststructuralist theory, which produce numerous terminology of educational field. Another difficulty is that of the understanding of poststructuralist theory which I am not familiar with. Finally, too many concepts in the review article that makes me have problem with linking them in order to be comprehensible and logical. Despite above obstacles, the article is the collection of much contribution to the field of language learning and teaching in terms of theory. It provides a valuable and useful theory for stakeholders, including educators, teachers, and learners.
Some supporters of structuralism argue that mathematical objects from the same structure depend on one another and the structure to which they belong. Those with varying opinion argue that such dependence does not exist. The paper seeks to establish two goals. First, proof that the supporters of structuralism’s claims on dependency may be right after all as their claims play a significant role in a style of structuralism. Secondly, the paper seeks to defend a compromise view concerning the dependence relations that obtain between mathematics objects.