Oral language is an important and necessary cognitive developmental step in literacy. People, children as well as adults, adults use oral language on a daily basis. People use oral language as their primary form of communication. Children learn oral language before they learn written language. According to our text book, “Teaching Children to Read: The Teacher Makes the Difference” by Reutzel and Cooter there are four oral language developmental theories. These theories include: the behaviorist theory, the innatist theory, the constructivist theory, and the social interaction theory. First, B.F Skinner, a psychologist, developed the behaviorist theory of oral language development. “Behaviorist theory of language development states that infants learn oral language from other human role models through a process involving stimulation/modeling, imitation, rewards, punishment, and practice” (Reutzel, 2015, pp.38). Skinner believed that children learned by operate conditioning, which is rewards for accomplishing a goal. In the case of oral language Skinner believed that children, specifically infants learned oral language by getting rewards such as smiles or praise for imitating words adults wanted them to speak. However, this does not explain how children who do not receive praise from …show more content…
These four theories are the behaviorist theory, the innatist theory, the constructivist theory, and the social interaction theory. Each theory has many different ideas on oral language development, however the theories all agree that oral language development is essential to all human beings. Human beings use oral language every day to communicate their wants, need, desires, and ideas to others. Children need to learn oral language at a young age and consistently improve that language to become good communicator. Good communication will help children to be successful in school and
Speech, language and communication can be supported through play and activities in a number of different ways, children/young people need the opportunity to express themselves using language. It is important to help them develop language skills and to help them use language effectively. It is essential to listen to what is being said and respond appropriately. It is important to be aware of any additional needs, and if English is a second language.
In his essay "Speech Communities," Paul Roberts mentions the importance and impact speech communities have on an individual's form of speech. According to Paul Roberts language is always changing due to three distinct features: age, social class, and geography. All which are the basis for forming speech communities and causing then to eventually adapt and evolve. When discussing the speech communities of a child, Roberts makes an intriguing point. He states that no matter what speech habits were engraved in a child from birth through its parents, they are all prone to change once they interact with a different speech community such as school.
The Socio-behaviorist theory (behaviorism) Socio-behaviorists often study how children 's experiences model their behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Behaviorism believes that what matters is not the development itself, but the external factors that shape children 's behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). This theory demonstrates that teachers and mentors dominate and instruct child-related activities, and they decide what children should learn and how to learn (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Reinforcement, which is an essential factor that helps children to learn particular behaviors, generally refers to rewards and punishments (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Children are more likely to repeat actions that result in receiving praise; in contrast, they may ignore or abandon behaviors that make them get punishment.
In the article, “Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics: Introduction”, Paul Gee informs the reader about his way of talking about literacy and linguistics and what the terms mean to him. How the term language is a misleading term. As he mentioned, "Language" is a misleading term; it too often suggest "grammar. " It is a truism that a person can know perfectly the grammar of a language and not know how to use it. It is not just what you say, but how you say it.
The Positive and Negative of Operant Conditioning and The Most Effective Method There are many ways we can come about in behavior. An American psychologist, B.F. Skinner, introduced the theory of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is known as associative learning and a learning process. The theory is made up of two factors in which behavior is modified through either reinforcement and or punishment.
Oral Language is when the language is spoken to express ideas, thoughts and even emotion. Before a child learns to read, the child begins to speak and connect through saying the words aloud. With that in mind, a child can identify and connect the words on the page to the picture that appears through their mind base on the concept of oral language. Oral language goes beyond the classroom walls because it starts from the words, saying and ideas that they’ve personally heard and experienced through their life. Therefore, many educators test their students on their Oral Language abilities, and Oral Language is comprised of Phonology, Semantics, Grammar, Morphology, Pragmatics, and Discourse.
Hamna Iqbal Baig Ms. Maria Kamal English Writing Skills November 26th, 2014 Outline Nature vs. Nurture Thesis statement: Nurture dominates nature in determining gender roles. Gender roles are socially constructed and are acquired through the process of socialization. . Nature is a key determinant of gender roles.
Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize continuity in development and argue that development does not occur in stage-life fashion. Skinner and Bandura are best known for there theories in behavioral and social cognitive theories. Skinner believed in operant conditioning, where the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of
The questionable and ambiguous nature surrounding the notion that children play an active role in acquiring language has been debated by many theorists of different perspectives. These three perspectives include the learning view, the nativist view and the interactionist view. In this essay I will discuss each perspective with reference to psychological theories and research that relates to each view. The learning perspective of language acquisition suggests that children acquire language through imitation and reinforcement (Skinner, 1957). The ideology behind this view claims that children develop language by repeating utterances that have been praised by their parent, therefore gaining a larger vocabulary and understanding of phrases over
The Learning perspective argues that children imitate what they see and hear,and that children learn from punishment and reinforcement.(Shaffer,Wood,& Willoughby,2002). The main theorist associated with the learning perspective is B.F. Skinner. Skinner argued that adults shape the speech of children by reinforcing the babbling of infants that sound most like words. (Skinner,1957,as cited in Shaffer,et.al,2002). This theory explains that the language starts on what they see or hear, the children will imitate what they see on their parents or the people around them.
One of the earliest explanations of language acquisition was proven by Skinner. He proved that for language to develop it needed an environmental influence. Skinner argued that children learn language based on “behaviourist reinforcement principles by associating words with meanings”. The child realises the communicative value of words and phrases when correct utterances are rewarded. In an ECCE setting the preschool teacher helps shape the child’s language by rewarding them when they imitate speech, sounds and
This is referred to the interactionist theory. “Similar to the behaviorist theory, the interactionist theory believes that nurture is crucial in the process of language development. Though, the interactionist perspective differs from the behaviorist
First, the speech development is one of the first tools that child will demonstrate in their first learning situation. Then, it is important to have language development skills at first. By this kind of activities, the children engaged in speaking with other peers may have cooperative ideas in play any task given by the teacher. There also verbal and non-verbal interactions involved between two or more person that contribute to the social interactions that can improve their communication skills. Basically, through this method, there no children left behind because all the children need to interact to each other to complete the
The Aural-Oral Approach in English Language Teaching In English language teaching there are several approaches that can be applied in a classroom. Each one has purpose and gives concern to certain skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) development. One of these approaches is Aural-Oral Approach. The Aural-Oral Approach is based on developing two language skills: listening and after that speaking which is the earlier stage of learning a language (Geri, 1990).
The development of literacy and language is a continual progress within a person. This development is one that starts from the moment a child is born (Hurst and Joseph, 2000). This development is promoted within the home environment and is extended within the early years’ classroom domain. Literacy and language development is comprised of four strands, which are listening, speaking, reading & writing. These four factors are in constant interaction together and are constantly developing within the person (Saffran, Senghas and Trueswell, 2001).