Introduction There have been a variety of studies, which have established how disruptions to attachment and bonding can negatively effect on emotional and psychological development. Family separation and loss experiences have been clearly identified as a risk factor for mental health problems in childhood and adulthood. Way of thinking, temperament and experiences all things play important roles, children who have had broken up relationships with primary caregivers are more likely to have compromised mental health. Separation and loss can be traumatic and its impact depends on the situation of the separation or loss. The work of Van der Kolk (1996) and others (Glaser, 1998) also work on the effect of attachment on mental health ,time addition ,situation ,or conflict between child r care giver, sometimes effect psychological and biologically.
Attachment issues can cause physical problems, such as failure to thrive, as well as emotional disorders like depression, failure to form attachments to caregivers, or mental-health disturbances. The more times a child is moved, the less likely he is to form secure attachments. Between 33 and 66 percent of foster-care arrangements are disrupted during the first two years, reports developmental psychologist, Brenda Jones Harden in "Safety and Stability for Foster Children," an article published in the winter 2004 issue of the journal The Future of Children. Kids with attachment issues might be distrustful and suspicious, unable to follow rules, or appear to have no sense of guilt over their behavior. Some attach too easily to any adult that try tries to care for them, but on a shallow level and to meet their basic
Physical abuse is the most common type of abuse which is when the parent or guardian causes physical harm to the child such as burning, hitting, beating, breaking bones, etc. “Some examples are verbal abuse are belittling them and threatening physical or sexual act upon the child.” (Psychology Today 1) “Signs that a child who have been abuse may show injuries if it was physical abuse. Signs that can point to sexual abuse are fearful behavior (nightmares, depression, and abdominal pain. Signs that can point to a child who has experienced emotional abuse or neglect are sudden changes in a child’s self-confidence and the child experiencing failure to gain weight.” (Psychology Today
Loss of speech, sleeplessness, self-harms, nightmares, having suicidal thoughts or actions are some signs that indicate a child that has experienced a traumatic event. Trauma is a reflective emotion, triggered by how an individual /child may react to a frightening or shocking situation. It is defined by the reaction of the child to a specific event. However, trauma to one child may not be trauma to another. But the child that experiences this can be scared for a lifetime.
Physical and emotional abuse, including social ostracism, has short-term and long-term consequences for the mental and physical health of individuals who are the victims of it. The experience of abuse makes a child more likely to be affected by stressful environment and leads to a number of physical problems. In addition to this, child abuse negatively influences children 's cognitive skills, their ability to concentrate and participate in social situations. Some people might, however, believe that the hardship that an individual might overcome in his or her childhood might, in fact, positively influence his or her assertiveness and inner strength. The experience of abuse will not make a child stronger or more resistant to external social influences.
Stress can have the power to deteriorate the human body mentally, emotionally and physically. It is known that stress can affect an unborn child significantly. At such a delicate time in child development, the stressors received by the mother can cause permanent damage to the unborn child. Maternal and prenatal stress and can affect brain development caused by adverse pregnancy outcomes, which include fetal growth retardation and autism (Relier, 2001). When an infant is frequently terrified, which triggers the brain to produce too many stress hormones early in life, it can cause the brain to become incapable of responding normally to stress.
ABSTRACT The term, ‘children with disabilities’ refers to children up to the age of 18 who have ‘long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.’ Such children are often marginalized and experience widespread violations of their rights. The exclusion of these children from the mainstream society makes them even more vulnerable and hence unable to enjoy a life of dignity and individuality. Factors like poverty; isolation; lack of support and infrastructural facilities further vitiate the conditions of these children. Broadly the disabilities that can affect chil-dren can be classified into physical and learning disabilities and both of these need to addressed dif-ferently.
As its name says it is an insecure type of attachment. In this kind of early attachment the mother is regularly inconsistent in her responses to the babies’ needs. The parents either tend to over react to their infant or fail to help the infant from engaging socially. Appropriate research from Siegel has shown that mothers experiencing depression and other psychological disorders tend to vent it out on the child thus resulting in excess trauma and suffering for the child. Resultantly, these infants develop a confusing situation towards attachment in adulthood.
“Complex trauma (i.e., exposure to chronic, interpersonal trauma in childhood) has been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain development, which in turn can result in cognitive and neuropsychological deficits” (Gabowitz, Zucker & Cook, 2008, p. 163). Typically, complex traumatic experiences begin in childhood and refer not only to the child’s exposure to the event but also the impact of these exposures on development (Gabowitz et al., 2008; Lawson, Davis & Brandon, 2013). Such exposures include repeated incidence of abuse (sexual, emotional and physical); neglect; loss; and witnessing domestic violence over an extended period of time (Gabowitz et al., 2008; Lawson et al., 2013). Ongoing childhood trauma has adverse
Children who grow up with divorced parents have many adjustment difficulties. There is a strong impact of divorce, and understanding it helps the growing area of research. Preschool age children may specifically become belligerent or overly attached, grade school children may show new behaviors such as rejecting school (Kelly 1). Middle high school aged children may lack motivation, find negative influences, experiment sexually, or engage in self-harmful activities (Kelly 1). Other behaviors that are common are refusal to spend time with one parent, becoming overburdened with responsibilities and other behaviors likely serve to meet the child’s needs, and feeling guilty.
The articles main focus is to examine older youth within the foster care system and their reaction to psychological instability. The different stages of growth throughout the child/children life and what might have been the trigger to offset a change. A lot of mental disabilities are cause from a combination of dramatic factors (sexual assault, abandonment as a child, neglect) drugs, and/or alcohol. The method in which was used to gather data was Diagnostic interview Schedule for DSM-IV. DSM-IV: Codes that are identified as psychosocial stressors and Environmental Problems.
When a child is placed into foster care, many times they have trouble adjusting. This may be caused by developmental delay. In an article, by Brenda Harden, she states that, “Moreover, research demonstrates that children exposed to violent, dangerous, and/or highly unstable environments are more likely to experience developmental difficulties.1 Children exposed to violence within their homes experience the most deleterious outcomes. For example, children exposed to physical maltreatment often experience impairments in their physical health, cognitive development, academic achievement, interpersonal relationships, and mental health.” Most children are more likely to experience problems if it has to do with violence or abuse before they were taken away and placed into the system. Those are the children that have more severe problems which will most likely lead to long