3.4 Selection of most sensitive strain to bacteriophages to make new stock culture Starting culture was prepared by inoculating 1ml (1×109 CFU/ml) stock Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis C2 culture into 25ml M17 medium in a test tube. The mixture was incubated overnight for 16h in a 32℃ water bath to get fresh Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis C2 culture. Inoculated the Lactococcus lactis ssp.
2.2 Litmus Milk Reaction A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours. Observations include lactose fermentation without gas as well as with gas, the reduction of litmus, casein protein coagulation and casein and protein hydrolysis. These characteristics were all determined based on the color of the solution and the production of a curd, the curds density and the production of a gas. To determine the density of the curd, the tube was slightly turned to see rather or not it was mobile or concentrated towards the bottom. 2.3 Carbohydrate Fermentation of Lactose, Sucrose and
Joshua Miller 12/18/17 Fermentation Lab report Introduction The term fermentation refers to the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat (wikipedia). Sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol when fermentation happens. In this experiment we determined if yeast cells undergo fermentation when placed in a closed flask with no oxygen. Glucose and yeast are mixed together in a closed flask and allowed to incubate for about one hour. Then, tests are performed to determine if the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are present in the flasks.The citric acid cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of ATP (Biology).
MATERIALS AND METHODS Bacterial strains and culture conditions Two S. aureus strains were used in the present study; S. aureus 8325-4 (SigB-) and SH1000 representing a SigB+.strain. Overnight cultures were grown in Luria Broth (LB) at 37°Cwith shaking at 150 rpm. Exposure to antibiotics was carried out as detailed below. Antibiotics Ciprofloxacin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich CO. 10 mg/ml stock solution of antibiotic were prepared freshly with 0.1N HCl and stored at -20°C. During the experiment we diluted with sterile water 1:10 and 1:100 depending on the different drug concentration.
Acetobacter aceti has four subspecies which are aceti, orleanensis, xylinum and liquafaciens. Acetic acid bacteria are bacteria that derive their energy from the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during fermentation. These types of bacteria are found naturally, where ethanol is being formed as a result of yeast fermentation of sugars and plant carbohydrates. Acetic acid bacteria have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bio production of industrial chemicals. Jonas and Farah (1997) stated that the gram negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum is the most studied for its capacity to synthesis cellulose among other bacteria that can synthesis bacterial cellulose.
Under anaerobic conditions, alcoholic fermentation occurs in Fleischmann’s Rapid-Rise yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). During glycolysis, glucose is converted to two pyruvate; consequently, the end products are two ATP molecules from substrate level phosphorylation and two NADH molecules. Then, NAD+ regeneration occurs, first converting two pyruvate to two acetaldehyde while also releasing two carbon dioxide molecules, and ultimately two acetaldehyde converting to the end product of two ethanol with the regeneration of two NAD+. It is important to indicate that the alcoholic fermentation process can be applied to the use of ethanol as biofuel. With this in mind, ethanol biofuel is expected to produce lower levels of pollution with the use
Extracted from vegetable oils, animal fats, seeds from plants like Soybeans, Canola, and Sunflower are few of the examples. This fuel is commonly used in means of transportation. (2) Ethanol. This is acquired through fermentation process. Sugar cane and starch crops like Corn and Wheat are few of the examples.
In the synthesis of Methyl Salicylate (Wintergreen Oil),it is found that it gives off a cool smell that closely resembles wintergreen oil. Salicylic acid has an electrophilic carbon as part of its carboxylic acid functional group. Thus, salicylic acid can react with nucleophilic molecules like methyl alcohol. The acid catalyst, sulphuric acid, is meant to lower the activation energy for the elimination of water from the intermediate.This reaction is not necessarily vitally important reaction, but does produce an interesting product nevertheless. In the synthesis of Ethyl butyrate (Strawberry) it is found that it gives of a sweet smell that closely resembles a strawberry.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae that used in the fermentation process is to convert the fermentable sugars such as glucose and maltose to the ethanol and carbon dioxide. Besides, beer and wine are fermented by using the yeast to produce the alcohol. To make sure the clarity of beer and wine, filtration is the important process that is required to remove all the unnecessary substances inside the beer and wine. Lastly, at the post- fermentation treatments, the maturation of wine and beer is required which is the process to improve the flavor and aroma of the wine and beer to become tastier. The pasteurization and preservation process are also needed in both of the production of wine and beer to eliminate all the microorganisms which will contaminate them and to prevent the contamination
The generation of the volatile compounds in fermented sausages depends on the activity of specific starter cultures such as the curing odor linked with 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone and 2-heptanone and connected to the addition of St. carnosus + P. acidilactici, St. carnosus + Lb. sakei or St. carnosus + P. pentosaceus, the butter odor linked with acetoin, diacetyl, 1,3-butanediol and 2,3-butanediol, which are connected to the activity of St. saprophyticus and St. warneri, lower rancidity and over acidity connected with St. saprophyticus and Lb. plantarum, respectively (Leroy et al. 2006, Toldrá and Wai-Kit