The Psychoanalysis therapy is a clinical method by psychological means for treating psychopathology, problems of an emotional nature, which was founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), based on the characteristic of human behaviors. Freudian psychoanalysis is predicated on the assumption that everyone has a conscious and an unconscious mind. Our unconscious mind is where we keep feelings and memories too painful to be address consciously, which causes us to develop psychological defenses to prevent these unconscious feelings from spilling over into the conscious mind. Psychoanalysis therapy forces patients to delve into these unconscious feelings through investigating the interaction of the elements in the conscious and unconscious of the mind,
High ego strength forms healthy personalities whilst low ego strength shapes maladaptive personalities. Freud’s theory faced controversy, specifically in the research methods and area of focus. This essay first elaborates Freud’s perception of personality, followed by evaluation of Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. In the Structural Model, Freud divided human mind into three theoretical constructs: pleasure-seeking id, realistic ego and moralistic superego; each agency has distinct roles, components and principles (Carducci, 2009). Furthermore, agencies operate at different levels of awareness.
Unconscious mind: Like Freud, Jung believed that the psyche is a person 's total personality and strives to maintain a balance while opposing conflicting forces he also claims that the psyche is continually trying codevelop itself in a process he terms as individuation (Hopwood, A, 2014). Jung divided the psyche into three realms; the ego (consciousness); the personal unconsciousness; and the collective unconscious (Hopwood, A, 2014). The ego is what Jung considers to the centre of an individual 's field of awareness, it is - of a sort- a form of a gatekeeper influencing which contents and experiences will be selected to be available in the conscious mind and which information will be eliminated or ignored, it also deals with feelings, organisation of thoughts and sensations(Smith, Peter, 2013). The ego links the outer world with the inner world is said to arise from the Self during early developmental stages. According to Jung how an individual interacts with the world around them influences the type of attitudes and personality traits that they will incorporate, as is the example with extraverted people (those who are dominant in their social settings) and introverts (those who chose to be less dominant in a social setting) (Hopwood, A, 2014).
It comprises that part of the personality, mainly unconscious which includes the individual 's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the conscience that criticises and prohibits ones drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions (3). This theory is the measure of our biological aggressive and pleasure-seeking drives vs. our socialized internal control over those drives. Freud asserts the notion that, “Human beings are motivated, even driven by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware”. “The Cask of the Amontillado”, can be viewed through this lens because it deals with human behaviour when prompted to make dire decisions. Furthermore Montresor 's bid for revenge can be showcased with this school of thought thus all three fundamental structures of the human mind must be profiled.
Sigmund Freud believes that our behavior is motivated by the unconscious which is part of our personality that contains our memories, knowledge, beliefs, and feelings. Freud’s most important idea was the human personality has more than one attitude, he believes our soul and personality are divided into three parts, the id, the ego, and the super ego. The id is the basic component of personality,
Erikson argues that the “Ego” introduces the individual whole personality more than the “Id” though it is divided into two parts, one is conscious and the other is unconscious (Fleming, 2004). He claims that even though the Ego plays the role of guardsman in arresting the “Id” illicit impulses and the “Superego” serves, the “Ego” has its independent life (ibid.). Erikson proposed a theory of psychological and identity development that he called “Psychosocial Development”, which emphasizes how individual’s interactions with others influence the development of his/her identity. Erikson’s theory focuses on different stages in one’s life and the relationship that people have with other people in each stage from infancy through old age. Each stage in this theory contains what Erikson terms a “crisis”, this crisis consists of interactions with others and through that interaction certain attributes and virtues are developed.
Structuralism depended on the thought that the task of psychology is to examine consciousness into its essential components and research how these are connected. The functionalism took a different perspective of psychology. Functionalism depended on the conviction that psychology
(Freud, 1949) Help is provided to the clients to enable them strengthen their EGO and protect it from being in any conflict between their ID and SUPEREGO. This theory is used to rectify the client’s character and their system of personality if found to have issues. The theory aims at making the unconscious, conscious by releasing the repressed emotions and experiences. Psychoanalytic theory also aims at helping clients work through their developmental stages not previously resolved well to solve the problem of fixation. Basic Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory The first basic assumption of Psychoanalytic theory is that all mental processes are not spontaneous but are caused by the unconscious or pre-existing mental complexes.
The basic underlying psychology is related to “Freud’s psychological apparatus” and how these aspects undermine what Reverend Dimmesdale is truly thinking in the Scarlet Letter. Sigmund Freud, a famous psychologist, whose philosophy of psychology is an abundant contribution to the Scarlet Letter and literature, says the mental processes of Dimmesdale can be assigned to three psychic zones: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is where the personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy that works to satisfy basic urges, needs, and desires of a character and demands the immediate gratification of needs. When unable to satisfy needs, the id relies on the primary process to relieve the tension by creating a mental image through hallucinating, fantasizing, or daydreaming.
Instead, he believed that personality developmentment is influenced by the parents’ behaviour and family constellation. These two factors influence the child’s perception of his inferiorities, affecting the child’s style of life or his attitude towards life. Adler explained that the mother is the first person the child will have a social interaction with. It is important for the mother to introduce the child to a social life and help develop social interest in the child. The care she provides for the child will influence how the child perceives his inferiorities, influencing how he perceives himself.
Sigmund Freud's Theory is truly unpredictable and despite the fact that his works on psychosexual improvement set the preparation for how our identities created, it was stand out of five sections to his general hypothesis of identity. He likewise accepted that distinctive main impetuses create amid these stages which assume a critical part by the way we communicate with the world. Maybe Freud's single most persevering and critical thought was that the human mind (identity) has more than one perspective. (Freud 1923) saw the mind organized into three sections, the id, personality and superego, all creating at distinctive stages in our lives. Id, ego, and super ego are the three sections of the psychic device characterized in Sigmund Freud's
(G, 1997) Stated that "according to Freud, our behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological and instinctual drives" Also, there is the idea of the construction of personality. This notion explains that personality of any human being consists of three systems of psychological structures. These structures are the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO. Another key concept of the psychoanalytic theory is the unconscious mind. Unconscious mind means a state of mind that we are unaware of.
Mind and Matter; each substance has a defining attribute. For Mind it is thought and for Matter it is spatial extension, both interacting within the brain - the question is how do these two domains interact with each other? Psychobiology comprehends this space between the psychical aspects of the mind that we can see and touch and the just as real immaterial realm where our thoughts and feeling are held. The philosopher Wundt’s importance lays with his separation of psychology from philosophy by analysing the workings of the mind in a more structured way, with the emphasis being on objective measurement and control. Wundt's aim was to record thoughts and sensations and to analyze them into their constituent elements (in much the same way as
Jung’s position on the unconscious was divided into the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. To Jung, the ego is the conscious which included the personal unconscious, recalled and suppressed memories, and the collective unconscious, the experiences as a species or knowledge that was always known. On the other hand, Freud believed the unconscious mind was the epicentre of repressed thoughts such as traumatic memories, and what drove it was sex and aggression. He declared that the human mind centres upon three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego. Thus in the opinion of Jung, the human psyche are not forced through sex and aggression and the unconscious mind exhibits itself in the conscious
3. Psychoanalysis: A Synoptic View 3.1 Freudian Psychoanalytical Theory of Personality Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of personality argues that Human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego and superego. Conflicts among the parts of the minds shape behavior and personality. These conflicts are mostly unconscious. And Psychoanalytic Theory is a framework for understanding the impact of the unconscious on thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
SIMILARITIES IN THE PSYCHOLOANALYTIC AND NEOPSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY There are some similarities in their theories, they both based their theories on the assumption that the mind or psyche is divided into the conscious and the unconscious. They both these terms in the same way: the conscious refers to that which is readily available while the unconscious is essentially irretrievable or things that we are not aware of. Jung was still attached to his Freudian roots; he emphasized the unconscious more than the Freudians do (Boersee 2006: 16). Their concept of the id and the shadow were also quite similar despite the change in name. They both represented the dark side of people for example when saving a little animal and thinking of how easy it
Thus, to be high on one it is necessary to be low on the other. Carl Jung and the authors of the Myers–Briggs provide a different perspective and suggest that everyone has both an extraverted side and an introverted side, with one being more dominant than the other. Rather than focusing on interpersonal behavior, however, Jung defined introversion as an "attitude-type characterized by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents" (focus on one 's inner psychic activity); and extraversion as "an attitude type
Self is also associated with notions self-concept, self-esteem and identity. Self-concept emerges from us, as a product of our self-reflexive activity. Rosenberg (1979 cited in Stets & Bruke, 2003) defined self-concept as the sum of the thoughts, feelings, imaginations about who we are. Further Epstein (1973 cited in Gecas, 2011) defines self-concept as a theory individual holds about self after experimenting, functioning and interacting with the world. Self-concepts are the mental constructs of the object of self, “me” which includes the cognitive, attitude and evaluative judgments about the desires, wishes, inferences, and how others act towards ones’ self (Oyserman et.al, 2012).