Freud described the layers of consciousness as conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The conscious mind is our awareness of the present, past, perceptions, thoughts,
There are different ways to perceive the concept of personality. Some scientists define it as a set of characteristics that are dependent of culture, ethnicity, and gender. The first is the psychoanalytic perspective that describes that the childhood experiences and the unconscious mind are responsible for creating the personality. Erikson described that social elements are important in carrying out the development of individual personality. Carl Jung took an entirely different perspective, and totally focused on personality archetypes which are present in the unconscious mind as a collective identity.
This essay will argue for and against with reference to empirical research whether it is possible to test Freud’s psychoanalytical understanding of mind. To answer the essay question, first, the allegations against the theorising as unscientific will be briefly introduced followed by a notion of a scientific method. Of the theories, it will be specifically Freud’s ideas of the unconscious and his methods assessing such that will be argued pro and con whether it is possible to test scientifically. It will be argued how Freud can be scientific particularly by the formulation of contemporary cognitive science language. Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, is much referred to and thought of as unscientific (Westen, 1999).
The Psychoanalysis therapy is a clinical method by psychological means for treating psychopathology, problems of an emotional nature, which was founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), based on the characteristic of human behaviors. Freudian psychoanalysis is predicated on the assumption that everyone has a conscious and an unconscious mind. Our unconscious mind is where we keep feelings and memories too painful to be address consciously, which causes us to develop psychological defenses to prevent these unconscious feelings from spilling over into the conscious mind. Psychoanalysis therapy forces patients to delve into these unconscious feelings through investigating the interaction of the elements in the conscious and unconscious of the mind,
High ego strength forms healthy personalities whilst low ego strength shapes maladaptive personalities. Freud’s theory faced controversy, specifically in the research methods and area of focus. This essay first elaborates Freud’s perception of personality, followed by evaluation of Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. In the Structural Model, Freud divided human mind into three theoretical constructs: pleasure-seeking id, realistic ego and moralistic superego; each agency has distinct roles, components and principles (Carducci, 2009). Furthermore, agencies operate at different levels of awareness.
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian psychodynamic theorist. Freud studied the unconscious mind and believed that how humans behave, their emotions and feelings all originate from the unconscious mind. He believed that the personality consisted of three parts: the id, ego and superego. • The id is the impulsive part of the personality which makes “I want” demands (Thompson & Meggit, 2004)
Erikson argues that the “Ego” introduces the individual whole personality more than the “Id” though it is divided into two parts, one is conscious and the other is unconscious (Fleming, 2004). He claims that even though the Ego plays the role of guardsman in arresting the “Id” illicit impulses and the “Superego” serves, the “Ego” has its independent life (ibid.). Erikson proposed a theory of psychological and identity development that he called “Psychosocial Development”, which emphasizes how individual’s interactions with others influence the development of his/her identity. Erikson’s theory focuses on different stages in one’s life and the relationship that people have with other people in each stage from infancy through old age.
(Freud, 1949) Help is provided to the clients to enable them strengthen their EGO and protect it from being in any conflict between their ID and SUPEREGO. This theory is used to rectify the client’s character and their system of personality if found to have issues. The theory aims at making the unconscious, conscious by releasing the repressed emotions and experiences. Psychoanalytic theory also aims at helping clients work through their developmental stages not previously resolved well to solve the problem of fixation.
(G, 1997) Stated that "according to Freud, our behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological and instinctual drives" Also, there is the idea of the construction of personality. This notion explains that personality of any human being consists of three systems of psychological structures. These structures are the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO.
This theory is the measure of our biological aggressive and pleasure-seeking drives vs. our socialized internal control over those drives. Freud asserts the notion that, “Human beings are motivated, even driven by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware”. “The Cask of the Amontillado”, can be viewed through this lens because it deals with human behaviour when prompted to make dire decisions. Furthermore Montresor 's bid for revenge can be showcased with this school of thought thus all three fundamental structures of the human mind must be profiled. Firstly an example of Id being displayed in the story is
Unconscious mind: Like Freud, Jung believed that the psyche is a person 's total personality and strives to maintain a balance while opposing conflicting forces he also claims that the psyche is continually trying codevelop itself in a process he terms as individuation (Hopwood, A, 2014). Jung divided the psyche into three realms; the ego (consciousness); the personal unconsciousness; and the collective unconscious (Hopwood, A, 2014). The ego is what Jung considers to the centre of an individual 's field of awareness, it is - of a sort- a form of a gatekeeper influencing which contents and experiences will be selected to be available in the conscious mind and which information will be eliminated or ignored, it also deals with feelings, organisation of thoughts and sensations(Smith, Peter, 2013). The ego links the outer world with the inner world is said to arise from the Self during early developmental stages.
Sigmund Freud's Theory is truly unpredictable and despite the fact that his works on psychosexual improvement set the preparation for how our identities created, it was stand out of five sections to his general hypothesis of identity. He likewise accepted that distinctive main impetuses create amid these stages which assume a critical part by the way we communicate with the world. Maybe Freud's single most persevering and critical thought was that the human mind (identity) has more than one perspective. (Freud 1923) saw the mind organized into three sections, the id, personality and superego, all creating at distinctive stages in our lives. Id, ego, and super ego are the three sections of the psychic device characterized in Sigmund Freud's
Psychoanalytic Theoretical Views Name of theory: Psychoanalytic Theory Founder of the theory: Sigmund Freud View of human nature (include innate capacities/capabilities and motivational constructs): Sigmund Freud viewed human nature as being deterministic and influenced by both sexual energy and instincts (Corey, 2017). He further identifies that soon after birth instincts drive our desire and force internal motivations into the reality of which we live. Although unconscious desires are the driving forces of existence in the beginning, it does not remain the only force through out our lives. We begin to develop into a conscious being as we recognize the world around us. Our external world introduces the conscious mind by showing us moral code, paternal expectations, and presumptions of societal ideology.
Manifest symptoms are caused by latent (hidden)
3. Psychoanalysis: A Synoptic View 3.1 Freudian Psychoanalytical Theory of Personality Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of personality argues that Human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego and superego. Conflicts among the parts of the minds shape behavior and personality. These conflicts are mostly unconscious.
The functionalism took a different perspective of psychology. Functionalism depended on the conviction that psychology
In his theory of dissociation he stated that: “The nature of conscious activity, especially partial automatism in which a part of one's personality is split off from self-awareness and follows an autonomous subconscious development”. Janet’s theory of the subconscious can be compared to Freud’s theory which is: “the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect”. Although there’re differences in the two theories, the main idea still remains, that the subconscious mind comprises thoughts inaccessible to the consciousness but to some extent, affect our behaviours personalities. Carl Jung (1953) also arrived at the same theory as Freud regarding the subconscious mind . However, there is a major difference between Jung and Freud’s model of the unconsciousness.
SIMILARITIES IN THE PSYCHOLOANALYTIC AND NEOPSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY There are some similarities in their theories, they both based their theories on the assumption that the mind or psyche is divided into the conscious and the unconscious. They both these terms in the same way: the conscious refers to that which is readily available while the unconscious is essentially irretrievable or things that we are not aware of. Jung was still attached to his Freudian roots; he emphasized the unconscious more than the Freudians do (Boersee 2006: 16). Their concept of the id and the shadow were also quite similar despite the change in name.
Sigmund Freud believes that our behavior is motivated by the unconscious which is part of our personality that contains our memories, knowledge, beliefs, and feelings. Freud’s most important idea was the human personality has more than one attitude, he believes our soul and personality are divided into three parts, the id, the ego, and the super ego. The id is the basic component of personality,
Mind and Matter; each substance has a defining attribute. For Mind it is thought and for Matter it is spatial extension, both interacting within the brain - the question is how do these two domains interact with each other? Psychobiology comprehends this space between the psychical aspects of the mind that we can see and touch and the just as real immaterial realm where our thoughts and feeling are held. The philosopher Wundt’s importance lays with his separation of psychology from philosophy by analysing the workings of the mind in a more structured way, with the emphasis being on objective measurement and control. Wundt's aim was to record thoughts and sensations and to analyze them into their constituent elements (in much the same way as