Unconscious mind: Like Freud, Jung believed that the psyche is a person 's total personality and strives to maintain a balance while opposing conflicting forces he also claims that the psyche is continually trying codevelop itself in a process he terms as individuation (Hopwood, A, 2014). Jung divided the psyche into three realms; the ego (consciousness); the personal unconsciousness; and the collective unconscious (Hopwood, A, 2014). The ego is what Jung considers to the centre of an individual 's field of awareness, it is - of a sort- a form of a gatekeeper influencing which contents and experiences will be selected to be available in the conscious mind and which information will be eliminated or ignored, it also deals with feelings, organisation of thoughts and sensations(Smith, Peter, 2013). The ego links the outer world with the inner world is said to arise from the Self during early developmental stages. According to Jung how an individual interacts with the world around them influences the type of attitudes and personality traits that they will incorporate, as is the example with extraverted people (those who are dominant in their social settings) and introverts (those who chose to be less dominant in a social setting) (Hopwood, A, 2014).
These elements initiated the basic theoretical background to contrast and integrate the classic distinction of level of consciousness. Even, he believed that the three interacting system of the Id, Ego, and Superego can examine personality traits and disorders in terms of inner workings of the mind of people and unfilled wishes and/or childhood trauma. Those three elements operate across the three level of consciousness which he categorized into conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. (Freud, 1905). Consciousness, the higher brain function, the level that includes thought, feelings, and actions of where people are aware of at any particular point in time.
High ego strength forms healthy personalities whilst low ego strength shapes maladaptive personalities. Freud’s theory faced controversy, specifically in the research methods and area of focus. This essay first elaborates Freud’s perception of personality, followed by evaluation of Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. In the Structural Model, Freud divided human mind into three theoretical constructs: pleasure-seeking id, realistic ego and moralistic superego; each agency has distinct roles, components and principles (Carducci, 2009). Furthermore, agencies operate at different levels of awareness.
Thus, to be high on one it is necessary to be low on the other. Carl Jung and the authors of the Myers–Briggs provide a different perspective and suggest that everyone has both an extraverted side and an introverted side, with one being more dominant than the other. Rather than focusing on interpersonal behavior, however, Jung defined introversion as an "attitude-type characterized by orientation in life through subjective psychic contents" (focus on one 's inner psychic activity); and extraversion as "an attitude type
Psychoanalytic Theoretical Views Name of theory: Psychoanalytic Theory Founder of the theory: Sigmund Freud View of human nature (include innate capacities/capabilities and motivational constructs): Sigmund Freud viewed human nature as being deterministic and influenced by both sexual energy and instincts (Corey, 2017). He further identifies that soon after birth instincts drive our desire and force internal motivations into the reality of which we live. Although unconscious desires are the driving forces of existence in the beginning, it does not remain the only force through out our lives. We begin to develop into a conscious being as we recognize the world around us. Our external world introduces the conscious mind by showing us moral code, paternal expectations, and presumptions of societal ideology.
Important concepts in psychodynamic approach to leadership include e.g. the family of origin, individuation, dependence and independence, regression and the shadow self. These concepts come from psychoanalysis and psychiatry and can sometimes be abstruse and not easily understood. That is the reason that there have been attempts to make psychodynamic theory more accessible. The psychodynamic approach emphasizes the idea that people gain their initial experiences with leadership from the day they are born.
Help is provided to the clients to enable them strengthen their EGO and protect it from being in any conflict between their ID and SUPEREGO. This theory is used to rectify the client’s character and their system of personality if found to have issues. The theory aims at making the unconscious, conscious by releasing the repressed emotions and experiences. Psychoanalytic theory also aims at helping clients work through their developmental stages not previously resolved well to solve the problem of fixation. Basic Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory The first basic assumption of Psychoanalytic theory is that all mental processes are not spontaneous but are determined by the unconscious or pre-existing mental complexes.
SIMILARITIES IN THE PSYCHOLOANALYTIC AND NEOPSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY There are some similarities in their theories, they both based their theories on the assumption that the mind or psyche is divided into the conscious and the unconscious. They both these terms in the same way: the conscious refers to that which is readily available while the unconscious is essentially irretrievable or things that we are not aware of. Jung was still attached to his Freudian roots; he emphasized the unconscious more than the Freudians do (Boersee 2006: 16). Their concept of the id and the shadow were also quite similar despite the change in name. They both represented the dark side of people for example when saving a little animal and thinking of how easy it
In his theory of dissociation he stated that: “The nature of conscious activity, especially partial automatism in which a part of one's personality is split off from self-awareness and follows an autonomous subconscious development”. Janet’s theory of the subconscious can be compared to Freud’s theory which is: “the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect”. Although there’re differences in the two theories, the main idea still remains, that the subconscious mind comprises thoughts inaccessible to the consciousness but to some extent, affect our behaviours personalities. Carl Jung (1953) also arrived at the same theory as Freud regarding the subconscious mind . However, there is a major difference between Jung and Freud’s model of the unconsciousness.
The basic underlying psychology is related to “Freud’s psychological apparatus” and how these aspects undermine what Reverend Dimmesdale is truly thinking in the Scarlet Letter. Sigmund Freud, a famous psychologist, whose philosophy of psychology is an abundant contribution to the Scarlet Letter and literature, says the mental processes of Dimmesdale can be assigned to three psychic zones: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is where the personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy that works to satisfy basic urges, needs, and desires of a character and demands the immediate gratification of needs. When unable to satisfy needs, the id relies on the primary process to relieve the tension by creating a mental image through hallucinating, fantasizing, or daydreaming.
Sigmund Freud believes that our behavior is motivated by the unconscious which is part of our personality that contains our memories, knowledge, beliefs, and feelings. Freud’s most important idea was the human personality has more than one attitude, he believes our soul and personality are divided into three parts, the id, the ego, and the super ego. The id is the basic component of personality,
Sigmund Freud's Theory is truly unpredictable and despite the fact that his works on psychosexual improvement set the preparation for how our identities created, it was stand out of five sections to his general hypothesis of identity. He likewise accepted that distinctive main impetuses create amid these stages which assume a critical part by the way we communicate with the world. Maybe Freud's single most persevering and critical thought was that the human mind (identity) has more than one perspective. (Freud 1923) saw the mind organized into three sections, the id, personality and superego, all creating at distinctive stages in our lives. Id, ego, and super ego are the three sections of the psychic device characterized in Sigmund Freud's
(G, 1997) Stated that "according to Freud, our behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological and instinctual drives" Also, there is the idea of the construction of personality. This notion explains that personality of any human being consists of three systems of psychological structures. These structures are the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO. Another key concept of the psychoanalytic theory is the unconscious mind. Unconscious mind means a state of mind that we are unaware of.
Self is also associated with notions self-concept, self-esteem and identity. Self-concept emerges from us, as a product of our self-reflexive activity. Rosenberg (1979 cited in Stets & Bruke, 2003) defined self-concept as the sum of the thoughts, feelings, imaginations about who we are. Further Epstein (1973 cited in Gecas, 2011) defines self-concept as a theory individual holds about self after experimenting, functioning and interacting with the world. Self-concepts are the mental constructs of the object of self, “me” which includes the cognitive, attitude and evaluative judgments about the desires, wishes, inferences, and how others act towards ones’ self (Oyserman et.al, 2012).
Mind and Matter; each substance has a defining attribute. For Mind it is thought and for Matter it is spatial extension, both interacting within the brain - the question is how do these two domains interact with each other? Psychobiology comprehends this space between the psychical aspects of the mind that we can see and touch and the just as real immaterial realm where our thoughts and feeling are held. The philosopher Wundt’s importance lays with his separation of psychology from philosophy by analysing the workings of the mind in a more structured way, with the emphasis being on objective measurement and control. Wundt's aim was to record thoughts and sensations and to analyze them into their constituent elements (in much the same way as
It comprises that part of the personality, mainly unconscious which includes the individual 's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the conscience that criticises and prohibits ones drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions (3). This theory is the measure of our biological aggressive and pleasure-seeking drives vs. our socialized internal control over those drives. Freud asserts the notion that, “Human beings are motivated, even driven by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware”. “The Cask of the Amontillado”, can be viewed through this lens because it deals with human behaviour when prompted to make dire decisions. Furthermore Montresor 's bid for revenge can be showcased with this school of thought thus all three fundamental structures of the human mind must be profiled.
Jung’s position on the unconscious was divided into the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. To Jung, the ego is the conscious which included the personal unconscious, recalled and suppressed memories, and the collective unconscious, the experiences as a species or knowledge that was always known. On the other hand, Freud believed the unconscious mind was the epicentre of repressed thoughts such as traumatic memories, and what drove it was sex and aggression. He declared that the human mind centres upon three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego. Thus in the opinion of Jung, the human psyche are not forced through sex and aggression and the unconscious mind exhibits itself in the conscious
Instead, he believed that personality developmentment is influenced by the parents’ behaviour and family constellation. These two factors influence the child’s perception of his inferiorities, affecting the child’s style of life or his attitude towards life. Adler explained that the mother is the first person the child will have a social interaction with. It is important for the mother to introduce the child to a social life and help develop social interest in the child. The care she provides for the child will influence how the child perceives his inferiorities, influencing how he perceives himself.
The theory is all based on human psyche. It analyzes the writers psyche, how the creative process was involved, psychological principals within the work, and the effects of the literature on the reader. Freud’s method when applied within psychoanalytical criticism includes many of his basic theories. The idea of id is the unconscious part of a person’s brain that stores desires, wishes, and fear. The id is also the source of libido and sexual energy.