Operant conditioning is accredited to a psychologist named B.F. Skinner. He is well known for his operant box experiment, also known as the Skinner Box. The Skinner Box is this experiment was used to train rats to tap a lever to collect some type of recompense, like a sugar pellet. Skinner discovered with his rat experiment, that animals could be trained to
“Curley stepped over to Lennie like a terrier“ (Steinbeck 62). With this quote Steinbeck is comparing Curley to a terrier and giving the terriers characteristics to Curley, based on the bigger message of perception that Steinbeck is trying to send you can perceive this as if Curly is a small innocent do like a terrier is or as an aggressive man also like the terrier is based on your past and knowledge. In conclusion, you can see how Steinbeck uses animal imagery to send the greater message of perception using Lennie, Curley, and Candy. He gives them the characteristics of the animal and leaves the reader's perception to perceive them as good or bad based on the reader's experiences and
The theory is that behaviour is determined by the external environment. It is a part of psychology that is not related to the study of consciousness instead the study of behaviour within itself. Behavioural theory was founded and influenced in the early 20th century by John B Watson, Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner. John Watson theorized classical behaviourism which is the objective study of behaviour. Ivan Pavlov theorized classical conditioning where in an experiment dogs associated food with the arrival of the laboratory assistant through learned behaviour through an external stimulus.
2. Four Theoretical Forces of Psychology ‘A theory is a general explanation of a set of observations or facts. Explanations for behaviour is a very important step in the process of forming theories of behaviour. The goal of description provides the observation, and the goal of explanation helps to build the theory (Saundra et al, 2014.p18).’ 2.1 The Behavioural Theory ‘The behavioural Theory can be defined as a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour (Weiten, 2014, p6)’. The Ivan Pavlov’s experiment of the dog that salivated at the sound of a tone because the food would follow, showed that a reflex which is an involuntary reaction, such as salivation, which normally happens when there is actual food in the mouth, could be caused by a totally unrelated stimulus, the ringing of a bell (Saudra et al, 2014, p27).
He developed operant conditioning, because he believed that the first type of learning; Classical conditioning, didn’t do justice in explaining the complexity of human behaviour. He thought that the best way to understand why humans behave the way they do was to look at what causes an action and the consequence (punishment or reinforcement) of the action, for this reason operant conditioning was developed. Skinner’s work was based on Edward Thorndike’s law of effect which stated that; satisfying responses are more likely to occur again and dis- satisfying responses are less likely to occur again. Skinner added the term reinforcement to the Law of effect, where reinforced behaviour is more likely to occur again and behaviour that is not reinforced is not likely to occur again, he studied operant conditioning using a ‘Skinner’s Box’ or operant
Within this theory there are two types of punishments and two types of reinforcements. Positive reinforcement deals with the presentation of positive stimuli after an action. Negative reinforcement is when a negative stimulus is taken away. Positive punishment is when undesired consequences are attached to a certain behavior. Lastly, negative punishment is when desired consequences are removed such as material items.
Mr. Byrne 's can use operant conditioning techniques to reduce disruptive behaviors and increase cooperative behaviors. Operant conditioning is a condition in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer to the approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus. “The fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that behavior is determined by its consequences. Behavior does not occur as isolated and unrelated events; the consequences that follow the actions of an animal, be they good, bad, or indifferent, will have an effect on the frequency with which those actions are repeated in the future,” (Laule 2). A reinforcement strengthens a response, reinforcement
Evidently, Darwin’s principles continues to influence the scientific world at a noteworthy level, but Dewey argues that Darwin’s theories has influenced philosophical understandings by disbanding the philosophy of “fixed” and “final” while creating a new logic behind philosophy. Dewey begins his argument with a background on the origins of the classical philosophy of nature and knowledge. The classical philosophy of nature and knowledge, as Dewey paraphrased, “rested on the assumption of the superiority of the fixed and final; they rested upon treating change and origin as signs of defect and unreality.” Under the classical philosophy, the notion of a fixed purpose in the sense of attaining a predestined perfection prevailed over the notion
Similarily, Mihaly Csikzentmihaly, the author of Finding Flow also discusses the effects of negative emotions, stating that "psychic entropy" makes it harder for us to focus. (22) However, Sharon Kirkey, the author of the article, "Refute of Happiness" argues that the more we try to get rid of difficulties, negativity, and pessimism, the more unhappier we will become. McGonigal and Csikzentmihaly argue that we should learn how to deal with psychic entropy in a way which will not interfere with our goals in order to improve the quality of life while Kirkey implies that avoiding psychic entropy, a state in which it becomes difficult to focus on external tasks due to stress, will not improve the quality of life, rather it would cause more unhappiness. McGonigal states that stress causes any temptation seem even more tempting because our brains try to look for any type of relief even if it won’t make us feel better. "The stress hormones released during a fight-or-flight response also increase the excitability of your dopamine neurons"(136).
Two important ideas of Descartes which are 1) perception, reproduction and attention as function of body and 2) animal do not possess soul helped who follow him to study on animals and understand to human behavior. Descartes provide testable hypotheses about relationships between behavior and physiology. He believed in concept of consciousness that was the distinction between human beings and animals. From his influential work, Spinoza and Leibnitz contribute to early development of science of psychology. The rationalist and their followers developed theoretical positions ranging from existence and nature of God to detailed theories of physical and physiological processes.