(2007) that the behavioral concepts of learning have had a deep influence on educational systems and training programs. As Sleezer, Conti, and Nolan point out, HRD professionals rely on behaviorism’s emphasis on the rewards and stimuli that learners receive from the environment, the systematic observation of behavior, and relating newly acquired information to previous learning and experience (as cited in Merriam et al., 2007). More specifically, the value of behavioral philosophy and guidance may be traced to applications of workplace training and education programs used by designers to create behavior-based objectives that are demonstrated by students as evidence of learning and changes in behavior (Greeno, Collins, & Resnick, 1996). Viewing learning as the product of responding to stimuli in the environment is central to behaviorist approach. This concept can be applied in different aspects relevant to workforce education like instructional designing.
This assignment’s compilation serves the purpose of critically discussing the importance of primary school educators’ ability to understand theories of child development and their use within Intermediate phase education. Children perceive information in altered manners at particular stages of their development; this will be discussed further in this essay. Theories include Behaviourism, Constructivism and Cognitivism. It is imperative for educators to be aware of the theories that are applicable to the children they interact with, thus allowing them to provide information and activities for the learners in numerous manners to aid their development. The Behaviourists believed that our behaviour is shaped by the environment.
Originated by Emdin (2011), reality pedagogy is an outgrowth of his research in urban classrooms and focuses primarily on understanding urban students and their culture within a particular social space, such as the science classroom. Reality pedagogy involves the development of teachers’ ability to understand the realities of student lives so that the cultural referents used in instruction are reflective of students’ realities and not teachers’ perspectives of them. It provides opportunities for teachers to immerse themselves in the students’ local culture, and then work with students to accurately use the information from these realities in their instruction. Through this process, the political underpinnings to teaching and learning get revealed to the teacher experientially (Emdin, 2010, 2012). Thus, through the provision of opportunities provided by reality pedagogy for the teacher to be a part of student activities, practices, and rituals, a more accurate reflection of student culture in the classroom is delivered.
This principle connects very well to the term digigogy, a new digital pedagogy. Michael Fisher (2013) states, “Where pedagogy is about methods to instruct, digigogy is about those methods, but with a technological frame. Digigogy is…the future of instruction” (para. 1). This modern digital pedagogy places emphasis on the digital tools that help students succeed in the classroom.
This way of learning has been in practice since the beginning of our civilisation as a method to pass on the wisdom of the elders to the younger generations in order to perform day to day tasks. Bandura on the other hand calls this form of learning as Observational Learning. This theory evolved from theories of behaviourist like B.F. Skinner and Pavlov. Bandura added that cognitive factor needed to be taken into account and not just looking at it from a behaviourist perspective.He states that learning can only occur when behaviour is observed and is working together with cognition of our brain. For example as illustrated in the now famous “Bobo Doll Experiment” by Bandura, Ross, and Ross(1961), found that children who observed a model displaying aggressive behaviour towards the Bobo doll imitated that behaviour.
He believes students’ inquiries, research, reflection, comparing, contrasting, and debating of the issues are how adults learn. Bradsford, Brown, & Cocking (2000) report the contemporary school of thought of how people learn is a constructionist viewpoint. People build on the knowledge they already possess. It is a logical assumption from this view that if during the experience of learning more points of view are expressed and explored, new knowledge will be the result. Once again, Knowles and associates (1984) postulated there are distinct differences between how adults and children learn.
The Shaman approach to education allows educators to self-reflect to understand the deficiencies of the school curriculum and develop mechanisms for improving the outcomes of the learning process. Constructivism, on the other hand, is an educational and learning theory in which meaning making is a central result of education. It promotes personal understanding and knowledge creation. As such, a constructivist approach contends that objects and events have no absolute meaning; rather individuals interpret objects and events differently and create meaning based on personal cultural, social, and political contexts. Thus, the concept of learning as a social process and the constructivist approach would provide students with different points of view on a given topic that would make it easy for them to understand difficult topics.
The Possibilities of an Alternative Education Model Which question is best to ask of a student: “What cities did the United States drop an atomic bomb on to end the war with Japan?” or “Was President Truman correct in ordering the Army to drop the atomic bomb on Japan? Defend your answer.” The first question is an example of project based learning. The second, is a problem based learning example. Dr. Campbell of Teacher Magazine says “ Both problem-based and project-based learning have their place in today’s classroom and can promote 21st Century learning.” Project based learning, however, is the main education model that is implemented within the modern K-12 pedagogy. Problem based learning, which is an arguably better education model, is
Even in activity-based subjects when learners are working activities in a group, group discussion or exploration of the concepts are not promoted. This tends to neglect critical thinking and unifying concepts essential to authentic science literacy and appreciation ( Yore 2001). This teacher-centered approach of teaching also assumes that all learners have a comparable basic level of background knowledge in the subject matter and are able to absorb the material at the same pace (Lors,
Contemporary education promises for a student-centered environment where the learner’s learning needs are taken into account in forming pedagogical approaches. The study of the learners’ psychology aims to have a better understanding of how a student may learn best – which then entails for teachers to be responsible in providing motivation for their student as it is deemed necessary. With this shift in educational paradigm as modern educational research took place, the need for teachers to innovate pedagogical approaches arises, and it is where popular culture may serve as one. With this type of pedagogical mind set, it is then appropriate to capitalize on popular culture as a good source of learning materials. With the attempt to use popular culture in the field of education, it is initially imperative to define the term to draw the limitations of its applicability.