Method Experiment Results DNase footprinting Binding to a protein protects DNA. The DNA is first either radiolabeled or chemically marked and then exposed to DNase (or in situ generated OH radicals) and then analyzed by gel electrophoresis. The DNA target sequence can be determined. Varying the concentration leads to binding constants. In addition, the influence of activating or inhibiting chemical can be assessed.
There are 4 pairs of proteins (histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) involved in forming the protein core for the DNA to coil around. The DNA strand wraps twice around the core and continues to the next nucleosome. H1 histone protein links the nucleosomes to each other. Nucleosomes then coil tightly to form chromatids which are tightly condensed to form a full chromosome. This gives the chromatin a beaded appearance under an electron
INTRODUCTION Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a double helix structure strand which contain hereditary genetic material of living organisms. It is composed of small single nucleotides which makes a long polymer by repeating the nucleotide units. (Saender W, 1984) The nucleotide contains deoxyribose sugar, nitrogen-containing nucleotide and phosphate group which makes the DNA negative charge. In order to further study on human genomic material, the isolation and extraction of DNA is necessary to be carried out. DNA extraction is a process that purify DNA from a specific sample by using a series of physical and chemical methods.
therefore this process of DNA Profiling can be seen as a useful method of identification with marginal room for error. 1.1. DNA Profiling/Database: The concept is such that, DNA samples are taken from an individual and it is analysed in a laboratory. Further, based on this analysis, a digitized representation of numbers, of this data is created. Such representation is called a DNA Profile and is stored in an electronic DNA Database.
P. 9 #6: What are “RFLPs” and what is their significance?  RFLPs are restriction fragment length polymorphisms. If an allele separates two recognition sites and the same allele contains repeating base sequences, the variance in the base sequence repetition length will create different distances between the recognition sites. This allows for two different alleles to create varying RFLPs. P. 9 #7: List the sources of DNA samples used in forensic cases.
Globin- It is a protein surrounding & protecting the heme molecule. Heme synthesis: Heme synthesis is carried out in mitochondria & cytosol of the cell involving cascade of steps :- 1) The first step occurs in mitochondria, where condensation of succinyl-CoA & glycine is carried out by enzyme ALA-synthase resulting in product formation i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid. 2) 5-aminolevulinic acid is transported to the cytosol for formation of porphobilinogen molecule. 3) After formation
It contains two binding sites that orient themselves to point towards the centre of the ring. Each subunit contains two domains; an RNA binding domain and an ATP hydrolysis domain. In Rho there is an N terminal domain and a C terminal domain where the N terminal domain contains two subdomains. These are a three helix bundle followed by a five stranded beta barrel. The six C terminal domains have a parallel beta sheet enclosed between multiple alpha helices.
Then, the polypeptides are further converted into amino acids. The bacterial cells can then take up these amino acids and use them in their metabolic processes. Gelatin hydrolysis test is helpful in identifying and differentiating species of Bacillus, Clostridium, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Serratia . Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) production test is used for the detection of H2S gas produced by an organism. It is used
Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure. They differ only in the nucleotide sequence within that identical overall structure.Recombinant DNA is the general name for a piece of DNA that has been created by the combination of at least two strands. Recombinant DNA molecules are sometimes called chimeric DNA, because they can be made of material from two different species, like the mythical chimera. R-DNA technology uses palindromic sequences and leads to the production of sticky and blunt ends.The DNA sequences used in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules can originate from any species.
THE SEQUENCING AND ASSEMBLING OF THE WHOLE GENOME OF AN ORGANSIMISM The sequencing and assembling of the whole genome is designed to help people understand and visualize how long a strand of DNA can be constructed from smaller overlapping DNA sequence. The genome sequencing is a very important aspect in molecular genetics because it help and gives us an understanding on how a genome completely works, How genes combine together and direct growth, development and maintain the whole body of an organism. The body of an organism is so complex and more complicated but it helps to study the gene expression of a specific tissue or organs and most importantly to study the human variation, how humans are closely related to other organisms. There are