Spearman’s two-factor theory promotes the presence of two factors viz., G factor (general intelligence) and S factor (speciﬁc intelligence). The group factor theory put forward that all intellectual tasks can be categorized in deﬁnite groups. Each group has a unique common factor known as the group factor. Thurston and his fellow associates had discovered nine such group factors. Vernon’s hierarchical theory suggests a hierarchical structure for the organisation of intelligence in the shape of G, an overall factor branching into two major group factors and various speciﬁc factors.
Theoretical Paradigm Relational Maintenance Theory Knapp’s relationship theory describes how relationships develop and last and also how they end. This theory is classified into ten different stages which come under two reciprocal stages; are Knapp’s relationship escalation model and Knapp’s relationship termination model. This explains how a relationship progresses and deteriorates. Varied altered time between each stage can be seen and experienced when a relationship grows or develops. The stages can be even skipped out while the progression or deterioration of a relationship.
The pros and cons combine to form a decisional "balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses. The balance between the pros and cons varies depending on which stage of change the individual is in. Sound decision making requires the consideration of the potential benefits (pros) and costs (cons) associated with a behavior's consequences. TTM research has found the following relationships between the pros, cons, and the stage of change across 48 behaviors and over 100 populations studied. • The cons of changing outweigh the pros in the Pre-contemplation stage.
(2008a). Extra effort EE, or Prospector (oriented for future and extra effort); Effectiveness EF, or Defender (oriented for current results, less effort for future); Satisfaction SA, or Analyzer (oriented between prospector and defender). Above all, the direction of outputs and the dynamic leadership performance play an important role in this transformational leadership model since the optimal balance for dynamic leadership (DL) is 82 %; while optimal value for controlling (CL) and passive leadership (PL) is 8 % each. In contrast, the optimal for directions of outputs is 33.3 % each; while the optimal balance for cornerstones as well as resources are equally 25 % each (Takala et al., 2008a,
Differential Aptitude Test (D.A.T.s) The Differential Aptitude Tests for Personnel and Career Assessment (DAT for PCA) are a series of assessments designed to measure an individual's ability to learn or to succeed in a number of different areas such as mechanical reasoning, verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning and space relations. All of the DATs are timed, multiple-choice tests with time limits ranging from 20 to 30 minutes. These assessments can be used individually or administered as a battery of tests. DAT for Guidance assesses eight different types of ability, or aptitude, which are related to success in different areas of employment. Its co-standardized tests provide an eight point profile which portrays relative strengths and weaknesses in an individual's key aptitudes.
REPORT OF 16PF TEST "Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought” (Allport, 1961). There are various theories which talks about personality. It includes psychoanalytic, trait, learning, biological and evolutionary, and humanistic theories, etc. Psychoanalytic theories of personality originated with the seminal work of Sigmund Freud. According to his tripartite theory of mind, behavior is the dynamic outcome of the struggle between id, ego and superego.
In general, personality can be defined as the enduring, inner characteristics of individuals that contribute to consistency in people’s behaviors. Personalities are within individuals, which can help them to distinguish themselves from other individuals and make them unique as to attributes of functioning that are common to all humans, such as extravert, shy, aggressive, lazy and etc. (Robbins and Judge, 2007) On the other hand, sojourner adjustment is interpreted in terms of the removal of positive reinforcements and the presentation of aversive stimuli. Being placed in a new culture results in new reinforcers, new discriminative and aversive stimuli, and changes in response- reinforcement contingencies. Transfer of home culture learning,
2.0. Introduction In this section a background is offered on the variables of the present study which are under study including perfectionism, self -efficacy, anxiety, and social connectedness. 2.1. Perfectionism Recently, perfectionism has been considered a multidimensional construct consisting of positive and negative aspects. Moreover, empirical data has provided evidence to suggest that various adaptive and maladaptive indicators are strongly associated with different forms of perfectionism.
The mixed model of emotional intelligence postulated by Goleman (1995) is also known as emotional intelligence theory of performance because the model consists of sets of competences and skills that drive organisational performance and leadership performance. These sets of skills or competences which are the constructs or clusters of the model are self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. 1. Self-awareness: This construct encompasses self-confidence, self-assessment, self-deprecating sense of humour and thirst for constructive criticism. It is the ability to read and understand one’s emotion in view of its strength, weakness, values and goals as well as recognising their impacts on others.