Importance Of Formative Assessment

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Formative assessment was first used by Scriven (1967), but studies focused on formative assessment in ESL and EFL classes started in 2000. Among very few studies on formative assessment practices includes the ones of Gattullo (2000) Ruiz‐Primo & Furtak (2007), Pham (2012), Buyukkarci (2014) and Wubshet & Menuta (2015).
Gattullo (2000) conducted a case study on formative assessment in English language teaching elementary classrooms in Italy. He observed four primary teachers’ performance in applying formative assessment in their classroom. Gattullo focused on children classes and reported the methods used. He adapted a formative assessment framework which consists of nine categories: Questioning/ eliciting, correcting, judging, rewarding, observing, examining product, classifying, task criteria and meta-cognitive questioning. From that, he found that teachers’ use of information collected for formative assessment was not as effective as it had previously claimed to be. However, his study was a kind of survey in which the focus was just on children’s classes and the techniques used in other age groups were not considered.
Ruiz‐Primo & Furtak (2007) explored teachers’ informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. The teachers participating in this study were asked to videotape their classrooms in every session they taught beginning with their first FAST lesson. The researchers described the informal assessment practices as ESRU cycles—the

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