Tony Bush's Educational Management Model

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This research utilizes the Educational Management Theory by Tony Bush. Under the Educational Management Theory formulated by Tony Bush, the Managerial Leadership Model and Post-Modern Model are further utilized. According to the Managerial Leadership Model, the competence of an organization depends on the leaders’ focus on functions, tasks, and behaviors. The Post-Modern Model suggests that participation of stakeholders should be considered as integral part of an organization. Leaders therefore should show respect both the personality and perspectives of stakeholders. The model also suggest that hierarchy in an organization should be avoided to maintain democracy in an organization. Starratt (2001) suggests that more consultation, participation,…show more content…
According to this theory, two elements should be done in managing an organization. The first element is structuring an organization into hierarchy. The second element is the creation and propagation of rules to govern an organization. One of the principles embedded in the Bureaucratic Management Theory is the proper selection and promotion of employees in an organization. The selection and promotion of workers should be based on equalizations like; skills, experience, and age and should not be influenced by personal relations and benefits.
As to gender, the research utilizes the Role Congruity Theory by Eagly and Karau. Role congruity theory is grounded in social role theory’s treatment of the content of gender roles and their importance in promoting sex differences in behavior. However, role congruity theory reaches beyond social role theory to consider the congruity between gender roles and other roles, especially leadership roles, as well as to specify key factors and processes that influence congruity perceptions and their consequences for prejudice and prejudicial behaviors (Eagly et al.,
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Hargreaves (2001) developed a theory of school effectiveness and improvement based on: outcomes, both cognitive and moral; leverage: the relationship between teacher input and education output; intellectual capital: the sum of the school 's knowledge and experience; and social capital: the networks of trust and collaboration. In this theory, Hargreaves (2001) argues that the conventional model of measuring school effectiveness and improvement is an adequate tool for the analysis of school success and failure. The concept of school 'ethos ' helped to make sense of the correlation between a number of school processes but it did not allow one to test the model in detail, or to predict the performance of a school from any close analysis of identifiable factors. He proposes a new theoretical model of schools, which provides a working model, both of effectiveness and improvement. Hargreaves (2001) uses this model to present definitions of effective and improving schools stating that; an effective school mobilizes its intellectual capital (especially its capacity to create and transfer knowledge) and its social capital (especially its capacity to generate trust and sustained networks) to achieve the desired educational outcomes of

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