Different options should be compared with each other so that the manager can choose the right option for the task. “Efficient decision making involve a series of steps that require the input of information at different stages of the process, as well as a process feedback” (Baker,2002). A good manager is responsible in their decision making in order to align with the organization’s long term objectives. Managers need to recognise the conflicts happened in the organisation promptly to makes the effectiveness of management decision making by take in account the element of the internal and external environment” (Elbanna, Ali, Dayan,
‘Organizations provide its managers with legitimate authority to lead, but there is no assurance that they will be able to lead effectively’ (Lunenburg, 2011). Organizational success usually requires a combination of both management and leadership. In today’s dynamic work environment, leaders are expected to challenge the present state of affairs, and to motivate and convince organization members. Managers are needed to assist in creating and maintaining a positive and well-functioning workplace. ‘Leadership and management are often considered practically overlapping concepts’ (Bohoris and Vorria, 2007, p. 1).
In a centralized system the highest layer of hierarchy is responsible for decision making and controlling departments and division. A centralized structure is usually designed and has a formal layout. While in a decentralized organizational structure, the decision making control is distributed among departments and each department has certain degree of independence. It is usually emergent. Bureaucracy in an organization is based on single chain of command from top level to bottom level.
In doing so, the Situational Leadership manager works closely with the team and shares decision-making responsibilities. This style is often used by corporate leaders who are attempting to influence a board of directors toward developing a new policy for which there is no proven history or established practice. • Delegating = S4 (letting others do it): - Although the leader will still monitor task- and organisational-progress, he or she will pass much of the responsibility for the execution and completion of the established goals onto the individual subordinates or dedicated work groups. By delegating, the leader is usually less involved with decisions and is therefore able to focus on the work and achievements of subordinates, as seen commonly in the freedom given to tenured professors who are allowed to teach in the manner they believe is most effective while being monitored by a dean or department
The top management levels make major decisions concerning policies and also allow the lower management levels to make their own decision concerning day to day affairs. Implications of centralization: 1. It is easier to maintain secrecy. The latest rumours are only known to the top management
An effective manager will know when to delegate the decision to others and to set priorities. If the problem is easy to deal with and handle, less significant, can be handled by people from the lower level of the hierarchy, it should not be referred to the higher levels. Secondly, identify and analysis alternative course of action, there are criteria when assessing merits of alternatives. Thirdly, choose a preferred course of action. Managers will need to assess the consequences of choosing one option over another.
The heavily centralized command of autocratic leadership style ensures that the system depends entirely on the leader. If the leader is strong, capable, competent, and just, the organization functions smoothly, and if the leader is weak, incompetent, or has low ethical and moral standards, the entire organization suffers for the sake of a single leader. 3. All power vested with the leader leads to risk of leaders with low moral fiber exploiting employees, indulging in favoritism and discrimination, and the
● Autocratic- This leadership style managers makes all decisions with the input of others. Managers has total authority over everything. Since the managers alone would be making decisions groups may feel demotivated and may have difficulty completing a task if it is not going the way it should be going stated by the manager, groups may feel pressured causing them to make
Managers have to deal with individuals and group belonging to different ethnic culture. They have to control and channelize behavior in the desired direction. Organizational behavior helps the managers to effectively deal with work force
The hierarchical structure breaks down each system into controllable parts. With this structure, higher levels have greater authority over lower levels. Lower levels of the hierarchy must take direction from the level directly above. Divisional Businesses that offer a wide variety of products and service in several different markets utilize a divisional workplace structure. This structure groups the company together by different product and customer divisions.