Synthesis Of Melatonin

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INTRODUCTION
Melatonin also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine is an indolic hormone produced by the Pineal Gland in animals [1]. Production of melatonin is regulated by photoperiod as its synthesis and secretion are repressed by light but induced at night in response to darkness [2].In humans it has been seen that a rise in synthesis of melatonin happens during night and vice versa during day, a circadian pattern. Moreover the mammalian “master circadian clock” located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus provides environmental and biological timing information to the rest of the body so that physiology and behavior are coordinated for optimal functioning relative to the time of day [3]. On the basis of photic and
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Primary role of melatonin is to regulate sleep and wakefulness [5], and with this melatonin has been also proven as an aid to provide protection against heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, migraine headache and obesity, helps to fortify human immune system, works as antioxidants and have anti-cancer properties[6]. Melatonin also works as an inhibitor of breast cancer [1].

With the advancement of studies and various research taking place, it has been found that exogenous administration of melatonin has been found useful for medical use in the case of Sleep disorders, Jet lags and shift works, protection from radiation, Gallbladder and Psychiatry[8]
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ROLES

1. Cardiovascular system functioning and Diabetes.

An area of research has found that melatonin plays an important role in functioning of heart. It has been found that melatonin plays an important role in regulation of several parameters of cardiovascular system including blood pressure, where through both effects, mediated by specific melatonin receptors and direct unspecific actions, particularly those involving the antioxidant nature of melatonin, contribute to better vascular functions and blood pressure regulation [7].
Recent research has also shown increase of risk by double of having Type 2 diabetes in those individuals who secretes lower level of melatonin compared to individuals secreting highest level [6].

2. Fighting against Alzheimer’s, inflammations and obesity.

Studies have revealed that daily intake of melatonin combined with daily exercise leads to synergistic effect against brain deterioration in mice with Alzheimer's disease-associated mutations

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