Motivational Theory And Motivation Theory

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Alternatively, Motivation Theory offers a more dynamic approach and is more interested in understanding the process of developing motives rather than trying to offer a static analysis of needs. In the process theories of motivation there is less emphasis on specific factors that cause specific behavior. For example, a content theory might suggest that increases in pay can improve satisfaction and performance, while a process theory would explain why that might be the case.

Herzberg two factor theory
Herzberg looked, not at motivation directly, but at the causes of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in an attempt to understand what motivates people at work and from his research, he proposed a two factor theory. The two factors were:

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These theories are very important tools for developing compensation systems. According to Homan’s distributive justice or exchange theory and Adam’s equity theory, a major determinant of an employee’s productivity and satisfaction arises from the degree of fairness or unfairness that an employee perceives in the workplace, in comparison with others. The degree of equity is defined as a ratio of an employee’s inputs to outcomes, compared with a similar ratio for other employees. There is usually a fellow employee holding the same job in the same organisation. The key to understanding social comparison theories is the idea of perceived fairness. These theories help explain how two people with the same experience, job title, job responsibilities, and pay may have different perceptions of fairness. One employee may be entirely satisfied with the pay, and the other may feel cheated and act accordingly. To reduce these feelings, the dissatisfied employee would change the quality or quantity of their input. The result could be increased absenteeism, lower quality work, less quantity or even quitting the…show more content…
Expectancy theory hypothesizes that it is the anticipated satisfaction of valued goals which causes an individual to adjust their behavior in a way which can be traced back to the early Utilitarians. J.S Mill and J. Bentham described an ethical system in which people determined their actions by a conscious calculation of the consequences which they expected actions to be brought about. In the twentieth century, psychologists such as Tolman and Lewin, were advocates of theories of performance by people who held that performance is governed by expectations concerning future events. This turned a normative theory of how people should base their actions, into a positive of how to

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