MPPZ1113 LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 1: CRITICAL REVIEW ON ‘THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK ON ESL STUDENT WRITING’ PREPARED BY: KHAIRON NISA BINTI SHAFEEI MATRIC NO: MPP141104 SUBMITTED TO: DR. MOHD HILMI BIN HAMZAH DATE OF SUBMISSION: 30th OCTOBER 2014 Summary A research was conducted by John Bitchener, Stuart Young and Denise Cameron with the topic of the research on The Effect of Different Types of Corrective Feedback on ESL Student Writing. The purpose of this study is to find out whether the types of corrective feedback help the post-intermediate ESOL students to improve their writing skill. In order to check the effectiveness of using these types of corrective feedback, the researchers began conducting
Explaining and clarifying is a very important strategy, especially for children who struggle to understand. Teaching assistant can teach the students to clarify by focusing their attention on reasons why the text is difficult; to understand and to notice when they don’t understand; to clarify parts of the text which have confused them; to monitor their comprehension as they read, and to correct it when needed. Students should notice when they don’t understand the text; they can’t read a word, or don’t understand a word; they can’t figure out how the text is set up. Teaching assistant can teach students to use fix-up strategies to fix the problem when they don’t understand the text; to think about what they know; to stop and think about what they have already read; to reread. Teaching assistant can explain what to do if children can’t read a word, or don’t understand a word: They should teach them to break words down, look for little words inside big words, look for base or root words, prefixes, or suffixes etc; to keep reading or rereading to see if they can get a sense of the definition from the text.
Grounded theory explores the realism and examines the data with no defined concepts or hypothesis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Thus, grounded theory advocates that theory materializes inductively from the data (Chesebro & Borisoff, 2007) that is it allows for the emergence of original findings that are closely tied to the data. According to Goulding (2002), a grounded theory approach is mainly helpful for research to forecast and explain behaviour by highlighting emergent and building theory. Grounded theory is a type of inductive thematic analysis. Researchers using grounded theory technique must develop the required theoretical sensitivity to find out “substantive, grounded categories” (Glaser, 1978).
For example, for university study in one of the English speaking countries, the students should have a good command of language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) in order to be able to understand the lectures in the classroom, take notes, attend classroom discussion, and read and comprehend the texts. But if the tests are in multiple-choice format, then the examinees' practice will focus on practicing multiple-choice items rather than skills which they need in that specific situation. Thus, tests effect is harmful on teaching. Davis (1968) believed "a good test is an obedient servant since it follows and apes the teaching" (p. 2). But Hughes (2002) criticized this view since they are occasions when teaching is poor or inappropriate and tests create a beneficial on teaching.
Their mistakes were highlighted at the margin of the paper and then, the conference with the teacher was based on them. On the other hand, group B’s feedback was based on meaning which included a clarification question about what the person tried to say. Likewise, the conference with the teacher was meaning centered. The results showed that Group B improved significantly in verb accuracy and punctuation. Group A also improved in verb accuracy but by the end of the course, they were using fewer complex sentences because they considered them difficult.
This paper will focus mainly on three: self-consistency theory, self-affirmation and. The self-consistency theory claims that cognitions we have about ourselves works as expectancies for the behaviour (Aronson, 1968; Aronson & Carlsmith, 1962). Dissonance emerge when a person behave in ways that does not fit with his/her self-concept
The Acquisition-Learning distinction is crucial because it gives an argument opposing the effortful labor of learning a new language in adults. Krashen (1988) explained that there are two independent ways in which a second language performance can be regarded. The first is the acquired system and is the product of a mind process, a subconscious one that is very similar to the one that happens with children when acquiring their native/mother tongue. This process requires continuous interaction with the target language. On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language.
I can also see how confusing it could be when learning academically as well. Learning a language is one thing but understanding what the text is trying to portray is a whole different, more complex skill. As future educators, it is so important for us to keep this in mind when teaching English language learners. They may be able to read and pronounce words, but we must make a point to reassure ourselves that they understand what they are reading/saying
At this point, you might worry what if the students were not able to solve problems by their own. As it was mentioned above, Montessori materials are designed to facilitate students to correct mistake independently. Moreover, Montessori teachers would guide the students toward the established goals. Such tool is an application of scaffolding from Vygotsky (Driscoll, 2005, P. 257), which describes that instructors provide supports for the learner to construct