Myers-Scotton (1993), in this respect, has proposed the Markedness Model and suggested that code-switching is often operated for in a social situation for intervention purpose, code-switching, functionally speaking, can be measured as a social existence. Stanlaw(1987) refers a substantial purpose for the use of loanwords in English is “that they provide linguistic tools that individuals can use in personal and highly creative ways." Takashi (1997) disagreed Stanlaw and postulated that it seems “inadequate to attribute the high number of English elements which do not fill lexical gaps to the loanword's modern connotation alone”. Samsuri (1983: 9) in his book, Analisa Bahasa, asserts that language is a tool that is used to express people's thoughts and feelings, their will and their behaviors; a tool that is used to influence and to be influenced, and language is a first base and the root for human society. Many people often use the English language in their conversation.
Besides the intra- and inter-sentential code-switching previously discussed, we can find various strategies to mimic Walloon in the spelling, the vocabulary, and the grammar. Note that, contrary to code-switching, speakers believe they actually write in proper
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Definition and backgrounds of theories and concepts connected to this study are provided in this chapter. Reviews of previous studies on code-switching, bilingualism and computer mediated communication which are homogenous to this study are provided. 2.1. Bilingualism 2.1.1. Definition of bilingualism The notion of bilingualism is frequently connected to the idea of code-switching since a person should have ability to speak using two or more than one variety.
Baker (2003), for instance, describes it with diglossia stating that each language has different social functions. Greese and Blackledge (2008) use “separate bilingualism” to show only the usage of the target language in the classroom. Garcia (2007) uses the term “translanguaging” to describe codeswitching but without stating its diglosic function
According to Butler and Hakuta (2006), bilingualism however is a complex psychological and socio-cultural linguistic behaviour and has multi-dimensional aspects. For example, when someone goes somewhere abroad, they need English skill to communicate with the other. And when they came back to their country, some of them are
A cognitive aspect of metaphors and meaning This section is strictly concerned with a distinction between metaphor from other figures of speech like for example metonymy. It compares similarities as well as differences between them. It also shows the very process of distinction from many perspectives taking various aspects into consideration. 1.3.1. Metaphor vs. Metonymy Metonymy as it was in the case of metaphor can be defined from many perspectives.
The semantics of prepositions There is a numerous amount of research carried out on the semantic function of English prepositions. Specifically Tanaka (1987) revealed that prepositions play a role as a clue to combine values X and Y semantically. Tanaka
Generally speaking, inflection applies in more or less regular patterns to all members of a part of speech (for example, nearly every English verb adds -s for the third person singular present tense), while derivation follows less consistent patterns (for example, the nominalizing suffix -ity can be used with the adjectives modern and dense, but not with open or strong). However, it is important to note that derivations and inflections can share homonyms, that being, morphemes that have the same sound,
There were ‘performative utterances’ and ‘constative utterances’ ”. (Introducing the performative, para,2.). Fasold and et al (2006) held that: sentences which perform actions are known as performatives, while other sentences are called constatives. (p.162). Austin (1962) (as cited in Oishi (2006)) introduced the concept of illocutionary acts, and carefully distinguishes them from locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts.
At the beginning, the author puts emphasis on how native speakers of a language decide if a text is either a combination of unrelated sentences or a whole unified sentences based on hearing or reading it by the native speakers. The book ‘Cohesion in English’ show the differences that identify the two aspects of the text, as a unified whole, and collection of unrelated sentences. It is informed that there are empirical factors which are text characteristics, they should be found in order to save as basis in the text. In a grammatical unit, consistency is formed by a sentence supported by a clause to a group of clauses. A text is highly regarded as an exclusive semantic unit in the meaning related to a sentence or clause, however, it does not