Glucose (C6H12O6) which is the most common monosaccharide. The molecule has a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl group. Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a sugar is either an aldose or a ketone. Glucose is an aldose fructose is a structural isomer of glucose is a ketone monosaccharides, particularly glucose are major nutrients for cells. The process of cellular respiration, cells extract the energy stored in the glucose molecule (Campbell & Reece, 2005).
For example, fermentation occurs in yeast in order to gain energy by transforming sugar into alcohol. Fermentation is also used by bacteria, they convert carbohydrates into lactic acid. Ethanol fermentation is done by yeast and certain bacteria, when pyruvate is separated into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol fermentation has a net chemical equation: C6H12O6 (glucose) > 2C2H5OH (ethanol) + 2CO2 (carbon dioxide). This process of ethanol fermentation is used in the making of wine, bread, and beer.
However, all proteins are constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids linked in unbranched polymers. The covalent bond that exists between amino acids is called peptide bond, hence a polymer of amino acids is named polypeptide. A protein is a biological functional molecule made up of one or more polypeptides which is folded and coiled into unique three-dimensional structure. In laboratory, it is important to measure the concentration of proteins for research investigations. Biuret test is adopted to quantify proteins in fluid by using a spectrophotometer.
Introduction Galactosemia is a condition that happens when a naturally occurring sugar called galactose cannot be digested by the body. When galactose cannot be digested, it builds up in the body and causes damage to the liver, brain, eyes, kidneys, central nervous system, and other body systems. Galactose is mainly found in dairy products but is also in many other foods. The diet for galactosemia involves avoiding foods and drinks that contain galactose. You should follow this diet for your entire life.
The 20 amino acids are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility (The Biology Project.2000).All amino acids found in proteins have a basic structure , different only in the structure of the R group or the side chain(Figure). In this basic structure amino acid (Figure 4 ) is containing a central C atom , in sides a H atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group and the R group. The amino acid can be recognized based on this R group . The simplest amino acid is Glycine and it is containing a H atom as its R group
More osteoclasts can form than osteoblasts, in this case osteoporosis can manifest itself. Bone is also made up of a lot of collagen which is the most abundant protein in the body. There is cancellous bone (spongy, internal bone) and compact bone (harder and external bone). At the joints between bones there is hyaline cartilage that acts as a shock absorber and allows the bones to glide along each other. Inside bones there is a substance called bone marrow.
These polysaccharides include cellulose, glucomannans, and xylans. During peeling reactions there exists equilibrium between the open aldehydic form and hemiacetal form of these polysaccharides groups. If alkali is present then there exist a further equilibrium between open aldehydic form and keto form. ß elimination reaction can take place from both of these aldehydic and keto forms. However, ß elimination from aldehydic forms results in the stabilization of the polysaccharides whereas keto form ß elimination results in the removal of one sugar unit from the polysaccharides chain.