There are 7 bones in the head are associated bones. Then working down there is 25 bones of the thorax which is found in the sternum, these are more commonly known as our ribs. The ribs protect the organs in the centre of your body such as your lungs, liver and heart. Then finally there are 26 bones in your vertebral column, these are the bones that run down your back including the sacrum and the coccyx. The appendicular part of the skeletal system supports the appendages of vertebrates.
7.Tethered cord - is a congenital spinal disorder that the spinal cord “stuck” into a structure and usable to move freely in the spinal cord. This can cause lasting damage to the spinal nerves. 8.Spinal nerves - are nerve tissues that located in the spinal cord which is able to transmitted the motor, sensory and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. 9.Myelomeningocele - is the most serious spinal defect that the spine unable to form completely. It is a protrusion that contains spinal cord and nerves in the patient’s back.
The muscular system keeps bones in place and plays a role in the movement of the body. In addition to bones and muscles, the musculoskeletal system also has joints, which has tendons and ligaments within and allows the body to move, and cartilage, which prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly on each other. All of these components together make up the musculoskeletal system.
The first part of the Nervous System is the Central Nervous System. “Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of mostly of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.” (“Anatomy of the Brain, mayfieldclinic.com”) The cerebrum is the biggest part in the human brain, and is divided into lobes including the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Each lobe has its own tasks.
The auditory nerve, much like the optic nerve of the visual system is composed of ganglion cell fibers. In the case of the auditory system, these fibers originate from ganglion cells in the spiral of the cochlea.112 The fibers of the auditory nerve carry signals to the brainstem where they then synapse with neurons within the cochlear nucleus. Information from the left ear is transmitted to the left cochlear nucleus and information from the right ear to the right nucleus, however, much like in the visual system, many of the fibers that leave the cochlear nucleus cross over to deliver signals to the contralateral side of the brain.112 The area of the brainstem that is believed to process information about where sounds are coming from, the superior olive to be exact, receives input from fibers on both sides of the nucleus.112 The auditory system differs from the visual system in that in the auditory system, the cochlea is unable to produce an exact placement of the location of a stimulus, whereas the retina, within the visual system, can directly identify where a stimulus originates.114 This, again, is where the superior olive comes into play computing very small time differences between the signals that arrive in each of the
The diencephalon, alongside the cerebrum make up the two major divisions of the forebrain. The main structures of the diencephalon include the hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus (including the pineal gland), and also the subthalamus. Moreover, located within the diencephalon is found the third ventricle, which is one of the four brain ventricles or cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The function of the diencephalon is to relay sensory information between brain regions and control many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system.
Common causes of this type of hemorrhage are hypertension, trauma, and the use of blood thinners. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when an artery within the surface of the brain bursts and spills in the space between the surface of the brain and skull. The leakage is most commonly caused by an aneurysm. A transient ischemic attack is also known as TIA or “mini stroke”.
The vertebrae are numbered and divided into several regions; which correspond to the curves of the spinal column: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx as shown in figure (2.1). The cervical spine has 7 vertebrae and constructs the neck. The thoracic spine contains 12 vertebrae which the ribs attach to, and the lumbar spine has 5 bones which make the lower back. The sacrum consists of 5 bones which are fused or stuck
Most of the action that happens in the brain that is related to sleep is in the hypothalamus, which is located in the Limbic System next to the temporal lobe. The Limbic System is the part of the brain that works with emotions and motives through a network of neural structures; it consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary
In some aggressive systems that require surgery, there are risks regarding brain lesions. Besides, both in aggressive and in non-aggressive systems, some more indirect effects may arise, like a periodic initiation of specified pathways or brain regions on the BBI part may affect brain working in several aspects. Being part of the multi-brain system may also have complex repercussions on a person's concept of self, and there arise many questions concerning self-perception, independence and body ownership. Besides, complex problems with respect to privacy may arise, specifically when the BBI components use signals that the sender is not aware of or signals the sender cannot control. Therefore, it will be critical to clearly define and explain the state what kind of information will be transferred and to provide the sender with suitable measures to control the information transfer process.
The medulla oblongata is located between the pons and spinal cord. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The midbrain is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement. The pons are involved in motor control and sensory analysis. For example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons.
The Somatic nervous system has two neutrons. Those two neutrons are sensory neurons and motor neurons. The sensory neurons job is to carry information to the central nervous system. The motor neurons job is to carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle fibers throughout the
Basically, afferent neurons receive information and efferent neurons react to the information. In turn, if an efferent neuron is damaged, the muscle will not react. Injury to an afferent neuron disrupts the relay of sensory information. Injury to a cranial nerve results not only in loss of function, but loss of senses as well. One of the most commonly injured cranial nerves, the first cranial nerve, olfactory nerve.
The hypothalamus communicates to each lobe differently. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is a nervous system connection with direct connecting neurons. The neurons are located in the hypothalamus and then axons extend down to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe.
The nervous system has many significant functions such as direction of your movements, focusing of the eyes, pain sensory, contraction of the muscles allowing your heart to pump sending blood and oxygen to all your vital organs and removing harmful toxins. Your brain is the control centre of the body. The most largest and complex part of the brain is the cerebrum, the centre of learning. This controls the way you use language, feel emotions and think. It is divided into two sides which are connected together by nerve bundles called the corpus callosum.