According to Bartol and Martin (1998) Motivation is a most powerful weapon and positive behaviour and triggers the employee to continue work in organisation. It means, motivation is an internal drive to satisfying a need and to achieve a goal. Motivation is also a procedure that begins through a basic need or psychological need that stimulates a performance set by an objective. Contemporary theory for Motivation According to Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P (2002) Theory Author are summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, basic premise is that specific and difficult goals, with self general review, lead to valuable and higher performance.
Jim Collins in Built to Last states that "Maslow's profound concept of self-actualization could generate a Copernican Revolution of work and society, catapulting us out of what future generations will look back on as the dark ages of management" (Eu.wiley, 2000-2014). The goal setting theory is also a useful and practical management tool as it provides management with a framework to manage that involves goal setting and the clear communication of those goals to all concerned. Goal setting is not only essential to getting things done it is also vital to the economic success of a company. It is a good way to monitor the efficiency and effectiveness of work progress and to assess employee performance and provide feedback. According to Edwin Locke “goal-setting is more appropriately viewed as motivational technique rather than formal theory” (Huczynski,
5. Motivation is Planned Process-People differ in their approach, to respond to the process of motivation; as no two individuals could be motivated in an exactly similar manner. Accordingly, motivation is a psychological concept and a complex process. A motivated person can go to any distance to achieve his goals. Motivation becomes more effective when you have a vision, a clear mental image of what you want to achieve, and also a strong desire to manifest it.
Motivation is the process of influencing an individual as to act or behave in a certain way. Motivation was defined by Weihrich and Koontz in their book Management A Global Perspective as” a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces”. (Weihrich and Koontz, 1994, p 462) Motivation can also be defined as “the psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behaviour in an organisation, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence in the face of obstacles”. (Ezigbo, 2012, p 115) There are different types of motivational incentives which can either be financial or non-financial that can influence an individual or employees behaviour. According to Erbasi and
Instead of this approach, the Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow will help managers understand what the employee really needs, which is very useful in managing. Taormina (2013) developed Maslow’s theory further and found that “the more each lower-level need was satisfied, the more the next higher-level need was satisfied.” Self-actualization is at the highest level which influences employees to achieve goals. In management, this kind of phenomena is named motivation by achievement and gives personal fear of failure. Employees must be energized and inspired by the manager to develop creativity and feel satisfaction from their job. Moreover, the person who feels good in a workplace will not look for another job even if the salary is insufficient.
Different people react to different motivating factor. Hence, the management has to understand their employee. Although there is not fix set of motivating factors, the management can take the maslow hierarchy of needs as a guide line as people has the tendency to complete the lower level needs then process. Management can provide assist so that indirectly motivated the employee. The social factor that competitive genes is the own motivator.
Furthermore, the example which I given now will clearly explain advantages of this theory, because this is one of the most popular observation on what motivates people, using by managers. For example, nowadays, in many developed and developing countries, the percentage of people who are out of work and insecure still high. Even many policies applied to bring many works for customers, getting a job may drive everything people want, so they not caring the hierarchy of five basic types, and during the period of high unemployment, behavior changes, value of employees decreased. Therefore, managers usually envision Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a stepladder or pyramid, to degree required of work for short time,, and using five basic types to motivated them to exert level of effort will lead to performance. Also, managers can accomplish this, such as, help them during training to create easy plans, encourage them to believe in getting successful performance will lead to getting the reward.
Do you have any goals in life and what do you do to set your goals? A goal is something that we hope to achieve in our life whereas goal-setting is the way to identify things that we want to accomplish and to decide what we want to achieve in our life. Goal-setting does not only allow us to control our life’s direction but also help us determine if we are succeeding or not. It is necessary to understand the importance of goal-setting and to know how to set the goals. We just can’t say we want this and that but rather we need to work hard to get what we want.
It also helps employees manage themselves. Employees should set goals that are SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timely. Goals represent expectations and if employees have higher expectations then employees will have improved performance as long as employees achieve their goals. Most of the time, what employees need is motivation, meaning, and purpose in their jobs and if employees set worthwhile goals, they will find life but work more specifically more fulfilling and exciting. Once there is an aim, there is purpose and fulfilling that purpose increases performance as there is realization of achieving success.