Cardiogenic shock is associated with inadequate tissue perfusion that can cause cardiac failure, usually causing acute myocardial infarctions .RG is a 68-year-old man that has been admitted to the ICU after undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. He has been diagnosed with history of ischaemic heart disease with two previous myocardial infarctions, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia which he has been on maintenance therapy. He has been administered with dopamine at 3 mcg/kg/minute and titrated to 8 mcg/kg/minute during the next 2 hours . However, the doctor in charge suggested to replace dopamine with dobutamine as RG has history of myocardial infarction.
Immunity is when a person is in a state of being resistant to a particular pathogen. The two types of defense are innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the defenses present at birth and always present to protect us against diseases. Innate immunity does not have a memory response but helps to prevent microbes from gaining access to the body and helps to eliminate those that enter the body. An example of the first line of defense is intact skin and an example of the second line of defense is fever. In an immunologically naïve host, viruses attach to the host cells (Tortora, & Funke, 2013).
What do I know about being a critical care nurse? I know that being a Critical Care Nurse is a social job and it involves helping or providing service to others. This job provides advanced nursing care for patients in critical care units, commonly known as the ICU. There are many different activities that happen while being a critical care nurse, for example checking a patient's pain level, monitoring a patient for changes on their current status, and being an advocate for the patient's family. I also know that being a Critical Care Nurse can be a very emotional job with some of the patients that come in. Critical Care is usually the top of the chain medical cases, from kids getting abused to patients after having surgery.
According to my preceptor, the four most common diagnoses she encounters is type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease. She primarily treats the geriatric population. An acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease can also be referred to as acute on chronic kidney disease. This is typically an acute kidney injury (AKI) that occurs in a patient with normal kidney function or preexisting kidney disease.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are two divisions of the autonomic nervous system of the body. They are very closely related and coordinated with each other and regulate the unconscious functions of the body. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for our involuntary reactions and controls our heart beat, digestive processes, blood flow and hormone production. This means that we can’t consciously control whether our heart beats or not. The sympathetic nervous system prepares our body for the flight or fight response. If we are in an emergency situation, the sympathetic nervous system gets our body ready to either fight the enemy or run away from
Nursing consideration: Require regular monitoring of activated partial thromboplasitn time (aPTT) and needed frequent heparin dose changes (Brunner and Suddarth’s, et al, 2010: 765).
Nursing interventions are actions used to further the course of treatment for a patient. Once the assessment and diagnosis are completed, the nurse must follow through with planning, interventions and evaluation. An elderly patient is presented with numerous medical issues and experiencing difficulty breathing. Once the patient is diagnosed with hypertension, COPD, GERD, and exacerbation, the nurse can approve appropriate interventions to treat the pathophysiology of each disease. An appropriate pharmacological therapy plan is essential in providing the accurate treatment for the patient.
Congestive heart failure is a serious condition associated with reduced cardiac оutput, hyperthrоphy of the myоcardium, and stimulatiоn of the sympathetic NS. This results in down regulation of the beta AR number and cAMP in response to the оverstimulatiоn. Agonists of those receptors increase the cAMP levels, inverse agonists reduce those levels. However, it has been shown in vivo that inverse agonists such as metoprolol and bispolol cause improvement in mortality rates in mice models, xamoterol – an agonist used increased the mortality, while carvedolol – a neutral antagonist, did not have any effect (Greasley and Clapham, 2006).
The primary duty of the peripheral nervous system is to link the central nervous system to the organs and limbs. This helps to pass on information back and forth between the body and the brain. The peripheral nervous system, unlike the central nervous system,
The neurological or nervous system coordinates all the activities of the body. This system receives information from inside the body and from the environment through different sensory organs and receptors, processes and interprets this information, and sends signals throughout the body to control body functions (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 2011). This system is primarily compromised of the central nervous system, which features the brain and the bundles of nerves referred
The Bubonic Plague once destroyed 60% of a population once. The Bubonic Plague, or Yertis Pestis bacterium, affects the Immune System, and causes lymph nodes to swell. The Immune System is responsible for the body’s immunity to pathogens. It causes much malfunction in the body, leading up to death if untreated.
Anti-hypertensives function to lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Different classes of medications act in different ways to lower blood pressure. Some medications lower blood pressure by decreasing fluid volume, some reduce peripheral resistance, and others reduce cardiac output. Some medications use a combination of the three.
Kidney stones have been found throughout history. Scientists found evidence of kidney stones in a 7,000-year-old Egyptian mummy. Kidney stones can also be called renal stones, renal calculi, or by the medical names nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis.
Gaseous mediators, also known as gasotransmitters, are important signalling molecules which can readily cross the cell membranes, and are endogenously produced. Signalling molecules are involved in the communication of basic cellular activities. Gasotransmitters are easily accessible to specific target molecules which larger mediators are unable to access it. CO and NO are well-known gasotransmitters. Many studies have found that H2S is a new candidate of gasotransmitter (Wang, 2002).
The human body provides the ideal environment for the microbes such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi to enter the body. Thus, it is the jobs of the immune system to keep them out by protect the body from the harmful substances. Immune system is when the networks of cells and tissues work together to defend the body against the foreign invaders.(Menche,2012 and National Institute Health,2003). According to the Latin word, immune come from the word immunis which is free or untouched. So it is mean that our body must free from the all pathogens that can lead to the diseases. The immune system also can recognize all the millions of the foreign invaders by attacking them and prevent them from enter the body, thus