Seriously low levels of sodium can result in cerebral edema with enhanced levels of intracranial pressure and brain herniation. This results in seizures, coma, and death. The mortality rate for hyponatremia cases is 17.9 %. In the case report, the sufferer's sodium level was 123 millimoles per liter. The fatality rate for sufferers with sodium levels below than 125 millimoles per liter is almost 30 %.
Complications include: (Grossman & Porth, 2014). • Anemia- When your kidneys are not working correctly, your body may not have enough red blood cells • Skeletal Disorders- ESRD can cause bone tenderness and muscle weakness. • Heart disease- Heart disease is the most common cause of death among people on dialysis. Also, fluid build-up can occur, you may notice a faster heartbeat and swelling that starts in your feet and ankles and moves upward. • Neuromuscular disorder-Peripheral neuropathy usually affects the lower limbs more than the upper limbs.
The first cause is the failure of gastric parietal cells to manufacturing IF. This failure occurs when the parietal cells shrink in size (atrophy), then it leads to vitamin B12 deficiency, which reduces the number of erythrocytes, so directly it is lead to pernicious anemia. The second cause of pernicious anemia is atrophic gastritis which is a “chronic inflammation of the mucous stomach membrane that leading to losing the glandular cells that exist in the stomach.” Then it converts to intestinal and fibrous tissue. As a result, the gastric becomes unable to secrete the basic materials such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin acid, and IF. Hydrochloric acid and IF are important to absorb vitamin B12.
As you age, the lenses in your eyes become less flexible, less transparent and thicker. Age-related changes can cause tissues within the lens to break down and clump together, clouding small areas within the lens. As the cataract continues to develop, the clouding becomes denser and involves a greater part of the lens (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2013). Rarely, cataracts can present at birth or early childhood as a result of hereditary enzyme defects, and severe trauma to the eye, eye surgery, or intraocular inflammation can also cause cataracts to occur earlier in life. Other factors that may lead to development of cataracts at an earlier age include excessive ultraviolet-light exposure, diabetes, smoking, or the use of certain medications, such as oral, topical, or inhaled steroids (Paine David A.,
Other symptoms may include incontinence, speech and hearing impairment. 4. Biochemical symptom of Sanfilippo syndrome On a biochemical level, Sanfilippo syndrome is characterized by the excess excretion of heparan sulfate in the urine and the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the central nervous system and other tissues. Sanfilippo syndrome is The most common disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism, a syndrome in which the onset of clinical abnormalities occurs between ages 2 and 6, with mild coarsening of the facial features (but normal clear corneas), mild stiffening of the joints, slowing of growth, and intellectual deterioration that results in severe mental
Extra Credit Paper: Congestive Heart Failure There are many different diseases in the world today. One of those diseases is congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure, according to Chris Linney, an Irish veterinarian, “is whereby abnormal cardiac function results in the accumulation and retention of water and sodium, most frequently resulting in pulmonary or systemic volume overload leading to congestion.” congestive heart failure takes place when the lungs can fill up with fluid, which can be fatal or can cause congestion. There are three different levels/types of congestive heart failure: 1) is acute congestive heart failure, 2) minimal congestive heart failure, and 3) advanced heart failure. Each of the levels has a variety of ways
Chronic kidney failure, also known as Chronic Kidney Disease is a disease that is the lose of the function of the kidneys. Basically, it makes the kidney’s function lose it’s function. Chronic kidney failure causes kidney to lose its function and cause dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body. The kidney’s function is to filter out waste in blood. As the blood goes through our body, it picks up extra fluid chemicals, and waste.
In several cases the mass isn’t detected for months or until the mass ruptures causing hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity and the patient becomes critical at a rapid speed and infection can be caused by the substances that are normally filtered out by the spleen. Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen which can be caused by several conditions such as torsion and masses and is more commonly seen in cats. Traumatic insults are less common but is possible to produce a more life-threatening situation. The spleen is the second most commonly injured organ in the abdomen, when a traumatic incident occurs the spleen will contract and release a large amount of red blood cells, making it
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure, occurs when the heart no longer pumps blood as it should. With heart failure, the blood moves through the heart and the body at a slower rate. When this happens, the heart's pressure increases, and the heart could no longer pump oxygen and nutrients that the body needs. To avoid further damage, heart failure must be treated immediately. In line with this assertion, this paper will discuss the objective data, current treatments, diagnosis, social history, medical history, diagnostic studies, care plan, and client teaching of congestive heart failure.
About 60% of NMO patients show blindness in at least one eye after a disease duration of 7–8 years or severely impaired ambulation as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) [Refs]. Unlike MS, a secondary progression course is uncommon in relapsing NMO . A distinctive clinical feature of relapsing NMO is that the incremental disability is attack-related [Refs]. In general, NMO has a worse prognosis and response to treatment compared to MS [Refs]. Most of the deaths occur due to respiratory failure as a result of cervical myelitis or brainstem involvement
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease that affects the lungs and the digestive system. Because this disease limits breathing ability, it is a life-threatening disease. In the United States alone, 30,000 people have cystic fibrosis and 1,000 new cases of CF are diagnosed every year. Over half the of the people with CF are over the age of 18. (About Cystic Fibrosis) Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutated gene that changes the protein that controls the salt in and out of the cell.
Heart, kidneys, bladder Heart: The BNP level in W.A.’s blood was above normal. A high value of BNP in the blood may show early heart failure in people on kidney dialysis. She also has +2 pitting edema and Crackles in bilateral lower lobes and shortness of breath. As heart failure gets worse, fluid starts to build up in your lungs and other