How Does Motivation Affect Employee Performance

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The chapter will review the impact of motivation on employee performance and will be given an in-depth analysis. Various aspects surrounding paradigm in motivation and its relation to worker performance. The research will allow for location of literature from a variety of sources.

2.2 Overview of Motivation

Motivation should be viewed as a continuous and dynamic process of activating and building the workforce of an organization. The foundation of this chapter gives the meaning and definition of motivation i.e. the conceptual definitions of motivation. The section also gives an overview of some special motivation techniques, as well as theoretical framework on motivation.

Various authors have different meanings and definitions as pertains
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What conditions within people and the work situations are associated with effective job performance?

Motivation refers to the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction.

2.3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy ascending from the lowest to the highest and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied this particular need ceases to be a motivator.

The hierarchy is illustrated by the figure below:

Applications of Maslow Theory to the work situation at the Social Security Commission Physiological Need – These are the basic needs for sustaining human life – include food, shelter, clothing and sex. Deprivation of these basic needs causes a lot of tension to employees and lead to job dissatisfaction and eventually poor job performance. SSC should ensure that her employees are well catered for in as far as the provision of these basic physiological needs is
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Douglas T. Hale and Khahil Nougain did not find strong evidence of hierarchy. They found that as managers advance in organizations, their physiological and safety needs tend to decrease in importance and their need for affiliation esteem and self-actualization tend to increase. They insisted, however, that the upward movement and the need for prominence resulted from upward career changes and from the satisfaction of lower order needs Mullins, (1996). Man’s behaviour is seen as dominated by his unsatisfied needs and he is a perpetually wanting animal; for when one need is satisfied, he aspired for the next higher one. This, therefore, should be seen as an ongoing activity. What Maslow’s theory seems to be silent on, is the time frame upon which these needs are satisfied making it difficult to establish at what point the individuals get satisfied and start being productive for the sake of the organization. Nevertheless, Maslow’s theory has provided a useful framework for the discussion of the variety of needs that people may experience at work, and the ways in which their motivation can be met by managers and this will serve as an useful guide to this research Mullins,
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