Evaluating a chronic pain condition from a biological perspective is limiting, and often fails to fully explain the patient’s symptoms. In contrast to the biomedical model, which explains pain purely in terms of pathophysiology, the biopsychosocial model views pain, suffering and disability, as the result of dynamic interactions among biological, psychological, behavioral, social, cultural and environmental factors. Consequently, assessment requires not only the examination of the biological dimension, but of the psychological and social dimensions as well. A patient’s experience of pain and response to any treatment for pain are affected not only by biologically determined nociceptive (nervous system transmission) processes, but also by psychological factors such as mood (for example, depression, anxiety) and appraisals (thoughts and beliefs about the pain), as well as by psychosocial factors such as the responses of others (for example, family, friends,
You have a very profound question as to the role of physical therapists in opioid addiction. It reminded me of the very inspiring words of the APTA president, Dr. Sharon Dunn (American Physical Therapy Association [APTA], 2015). I would like to quote what she said:
According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) (Merskey et al., 2004), pain is defined as the unpleasant sensory and emotional experience due to the actual or potential tissue damage. According to McCaffrey and Beebe, pain is whatever person describes to be experiencing at the moment. Hence, when the pain exceeds tissue damage, the nervous system is triggered to respond. The postoperative pain is supposed to subside after the first week of the surgery. Minimal activities such as coughing and walking can be painful at that time, as the wound is healing, due to which the patient’s mobility can be limited. In order to minimize the pain, the patients are administered opioids and analgesics, which are accompanied with general side effects such as nausea, sedation, respiratory recession etc. (Brennan, 2011). Pain management requires more than simple treatment of the tissue injury. The management strategy for pain costs and burdens the postoperative care, as there is a lack of knowledge and resources for treating pain (Harsoor, 2011). It has known to be associated with poor wound healing and demoralization of the patient, leading to slow recovery and increased care costs (Woldehaimanot, Eshetie, & Kerie, 2014). There are several guidelines that can suggest management of acute postoperative pain; such as education of the healthcare staff, effective planning techniques, medicinal management and conservative strategies, methods to improve organisation, and improvement of discharge protocols which will decrease the incidence of mismanagement or diagnosis errors (Chou et al., 2016). Understanding the mechanism of acute pain in postoperative care, and the development of new analgesic treatments can also effectively improve the correct management of the pain (Wu, & Raja, 2011). The mismanagement of the pain can cause
The treatments given are there to: control pain, improve joint function, maintain normal body weight and have a healthy life style. Treatments which may be recommended could be:
What treatments are used and what is included in the sessions all depends of the nature of the condition. Common activities include massage therapy, stretching and exercising and the use of technology such as lasers and ultrasound. Hydrotherapy and electrotherapy sessions may also be included in the treatment programme.
The interchange of emotions and feelings within one’s self is a particularly hard thing to measure. Pain is a combatant of positive and negative change. Pain is one of the most prevalent causes of human change, and is a provoker of human deterioration. Pain has always been a major factor in healthcare. In this crosspost, the author will elaborate on the original threaded discussion by Ellerbee Mburu, Vail, and Barlow and add additional information on pain assessment and management.
We all know that pain is usually one of the major complaint of patients with chronic problems or those recovering post operatively thereby making pain evaluation a fundamental requisite in the outcome assessment during hospital visits. Interpreting the data from a pain assessment scale is not as straightforward as it may seem since the provider must consider the intensity, related disability, duration, and affect to define the pain and its effects on the patient (Williamson & Hoggart, 2005). Pain rating scales are used in the clinical settings to measure pain and these include Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS), Numerical/numeric Rating Scale (NRS) (Haefeli & Elfering, 2006). Each scale is unique on its own in terms of sensitivity and simplicity that generates data that can be statistically analyzed for audit purposes. The EHR in our hospital utilizes the three rating scales mentioned as part of the pain assessment tool to measure pain that sets the tone for the direction of the type of pain management will .be given to the
Muscle pain can be debilitating for many people. Massage can be an effective tool for relieving muscle pain and tension. After a session, most people emerge feeling calmer and more relaxed. The kneading and circular movements target deep layers of muscle. This can be particularly beneficial for people recovering from an injury.
One of the fears of growing old is that chronic pain will be a part of everyday life. While many seniors do deal with pain as a complication of illness or injury, pain is not a normal part of aging and does not need to be so.
Occupational therapy is for mentally, physically or cognitively disordered people whose daily living is assessed in order to improve their lifestyles and ease of living. Chronic pains are responsible for the derailment of several individuals and families because the affected person becomes disabled to carry out his or her own tasks and hence the dependability wastes time and money of the caregivers. The real problem in the case of chronic pains is that the affected people lose control over their activities but through occupational therapy, this control can be increased or even restored (AOTA, 2016). However, occupational therapy can only help the patient get accustomed to and adjust with the pain in everyday life and cannot cure the pain completely. Occupational therapy for pain rehabilitation has certain aspects. However, the cure for arthritis cannot be sought in occupational therapy.
The topic of this essay is pain assessment in advanced dementia scale (PAINAD) (Appendix 1) (Warden, hurley and Volicer 2003). This PAINAD was discover during my field visit in community hospital which is the Assisi hospice. Assisi hospice use this as a clinical guide line in assessing pain for demented patient, this drive me to know more about assessing pain for this special group of demented patient. In Tan Tock Seng hospital, both general ward and geriatric ward are not using this pain assessment in advanced dementia scale for assessing pain for demented patient. In Tan Tock Seng hospital, both general ward and geriatric ward nurses are using Wong baker pain assessment scale for those patient unable to describe or verbalize
Thai Massage: This type of massage is a bit like yoga without work. The therapist moves and stretches you into a sequence of postures on a mat. Thai massage is useful for migraine problems, relieve back pain and muscle spasticity.
Low back pain is neither a disease nor a diagnostic entity of any sort. The term refers to pain of variable duration in an area of the anatomy afflicted so often that it is has become a paradigm of responses to external and internal stimuli (Ehrlich GE 2003).
Most of the time, the choice of which method to use is a function of what individuals feel will provide the best results. If the affected body part does not experience an increase in temperature and the swelling is minimal, a person can continue to use heat therapy regularly to reduce the inflammation and pain in that part of the body. Patients who have rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis are usually more predisposed to heat treatment as ice packs or cold create highly unfavorable sensations and may even worsen their symptoms.
Physical therapy is the treatment of disease, injury, or distortion by physical methods such as massage, heat treatment, and exercise rather than by drugs or surgery. The goals are to help joints move better and to restore or increase your flexibility, strength, endurance, coordination, and balance. This essay will discuss the extent of agreement that physical therapy is vital to be used as non-surgical treatments by people experiencing back and neck pain from time to time.