“I am astonished to see how markedly our world is changing. A new world is being created, the old world destroyed. The very jungle becomes a settled district…” This impression of early colonial Singapore was written in the autobiography of Abdullah bin Kadir, who was regarded as a perceptive observer of the life in his day. The change from being “the very jungle” to “a settled district” best describes the development of Singapore in the early colonial time. After long being the “sleepy fishing villages” since the late seventeenth century, Singapore “woke up” and rapidly developed into one of Asia’s greatest port cities after the British arrived on the scene.
He introduced for first time the principle of administration according to law. He was appointed in February 1786 to serve as both Commander-in-Chief of British India and Governor of the Presidency of Fort William, also known as the Bengal Presidency. Based in Calcutta, where he oversaw the consolidation of British control over much of peninsular India, setting the stage for the British Raj. He was also instrumental in enacting administrative and legal reforms that fundamentally altered civil administration and land management practices in India. According to historian Jerry Dupont, Cornwallis was responsible for "laying the foundation for British rule throughout India and setting standards for the services, courts, and revenue collection that remained remarkably unaltered almost to the end of the British era."
Indeed, Malaya was divided in the Malay States which were under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were place under the authority of the British crown and the colonial office in London. The nine Malay States were ruled by monarchs or sultans until the British empire created the Federate Malaya State in 1895 after agreeing with four of these state leaders. Once again, the British benefitted of a strategic location in Southeast Asia that had natural resources and yet did not need require direct rule because local leaders were able to keep control while cooperating with the British colonial power making it once again an example of indirect colonialism. However, the other part of Malaya was made of the Straits Settlements originally administered by the East Indian company and which were later directly administered by the British Empire through the late 19th and mid 20th century as local Malaya leaders were replaced by British officials and pre-colonial institutions replaced by British structures. This happened because both economic and military interests were too much at stake in the Straits Settlements and therefore only direct rule could ensure the British interest in the region.
1. Background of A’Famosa Malacca. In the late 14th century and early 15th century, Malacca was found by the Sumatran prince, Parameswara. Malacca is named due to the history which said the prince, was hunting one day and while resting under a tree, one of his dogs cornered a mousedeer. The mousedeer defensed itself and forced the dog into the river.
SST 5602 – LAND USE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT GROUP ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY : SCUFFLE AT GUA MUSANG / RIGHTS DENIED / A BAMBOO BLOCKADE TEMIAR ABORIGINES VS KELANTAN STATE GOVERNMENT 1.0INTRODUCTION 1.1 MALAYSIAN ABORIGINES (ORANG ASLI) ORIGINS The Orang Asli are indigenous peoples of Peninsula Malaysia. The term ‘Orang Asli’ is a Malay expression translated from the ‘original peoples’ or ‘first peoples’. In Peninsular Malaysia, Orang Asli is the earliest population which lives in since about 9,000 years ago. (Perak Man). It is believed that most of them came from China and Tibet which followed the migration routes through mainland of Southeast Asia before foothold in the Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesian archipelago.
In addition, there is a large ethnic Javanese community, largely made up of the descendants of people transported from Java in the last century to be employed as contract workers at various plantations in North Sumatra. They are usually known as Pujakesuma (Putra Jawa Kelahiran Sumatera/Sumatra-born Javanese). Their presence in Medan can be marked from various Javanese toponymies in Medan, such as Harjosari, Sarirejo, Sidodadi, Sidomulyo, Sidorame, Sidorejo, Sitirejo, Sudirejo, Tanjungrejo, Tanjungsari, Tegalrejo, Tegalsari, etc. (mostly in East Medan and Medan Tembung area). The Malays and Karo peoples are the natives in Medan, already living in the city after the founding of Medan.
The rebellion occurred on 8th December 1962 during the ruler of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa’adul Khairi Waddien. It involves the first nationalistic party in Brunei named Partai Rakyat Brunei (PRB), which led by Sheikh A.M. Azahari and the rebellion led by their illegal armed forced, which to be known as North Kalimantan National Army or Tentera Nasional Kalimantan Utara (TNKU) the commander, Jassin Affandy.. According to Harun Abdul Majid (2007, p.36), the revolt occurred due to the issue whether or not Brunei to join Malaysia, which to be known as Malaysian Plan. Furthermore, the 1959 constitution can also be the reason for the outbreak of the 1962 rebellion. This is because Dayang Noralipah (2010, p.163) illustrated that Partai Rakyat Brunei (PRB) reflects the dissatisfaction towards the 1959 constitution.
Colonization in Philippine Philippine was one of the Southeast-Asian countries that was under the colonization of a great imperial ruler. However, unlike other countries in this region like Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, Philippine was under the power of two big nations; Spain and America. Spain has ruled over Philippine for a very long time. Their first expedition started on March 16, 1521 when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Cebu and claimed the island for Spain. But it did not continue for long because shortly after, Magellan was killed by a native who was against the foreign dominance.
INTRODUCTION The Awadh State or Oudh state was a princely state during the British Raj until 1856. The capital of Oudh State was in Faizabad from 1722 to 1775, the British Agents officially known as 'residents ', had their seat in Lucknow. Lucknow became capital under the reign of Nawab Wazir ul Mumalik or Asif ud daula Muhammad Yahia Amani. Oudh joined other Indian states in an upheaval against British rule in 1858 during one of the last series of actions in the Indian rebellion of 1857.  Under the leadership of the fourth Nawab
The judges also have flexibility, unlike that in case of common law system. However, the judges in the civil law system have the power only to apply the law, but those in the common law system have the power to interpret the law. In 1998, the Indonesian authorities established the Commercial Court also called as the Pengadilan Niaga, which handles the issues of bankruptcy and insolvency. Its jurisdiction can be extended to other commercial matters as well. Appeals from the Commercial Court proceed direct to the Supreme Court.