The defining factor of this multicultural re-orientation of discourse analysis is that it breaks out of the limits of the cultural imperialism on the other hand and maintains multicultural dynamics on the other. The Cultural nature of Discourse Studies Discourse analysis is verily influenced by culture in a number of ways. For research to be done certain aspects have an influence in the way research is done. Certain discursive characteristics and tendencies have been identified notably and proposed by (Xu, 2006): Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) - is modelled upon language as conceptualised in structural linguistics. Language is understood as unfolding and evolving because of many interactions across the world.
A. The History of Sociolinguistic The relationship of sociolinguistic discusses language use and social behavior. By discussing the use of language, one can find a variety of conditions, values, beliefs, ethics system, rules, and other shapes and special features to groups of users of the language community. Sociolinguistics as a science that discuss the forms and language to changes associated with social function in society wearer. Sociolinguistic record and analyze the language used when talking to someone interlocutor.
There are lots of types of spoken and written discourses which reflect the public opinion of the media. As well as there are ways to analyze them by using discourse analysis. By the discourse analysis , it means methods and ways that can be applied on the written media discourses. In order to find the reasons behind what makes it cohesive and united units that convey the message and meaning of the writer to the reader. The function of discourse analysis may include balance speech of the mind, interactions, activities, community and institutions.
Transitivity focuses on how the writer or the speaker describes who is doing the action and who is affected by the actions. Therefore it can be proven how transitivity as a part of the ideational function is capable in exploring the writer or the speaker’s view, and it can be concluded that transitivity analysis can reveal the relationship between language and ideology, as well as the meaning that an be seen or cannot be seen in a
1.1 Introduction The study of “cross cultural communication” is a great example of linguistic theory and how it’s applied. Researchers are often drawn towards this area of study for its vast significance; “depending on the culture, the people, and the personal relationships throughout the world.” This is further studied to interpret sentences beyond its linguistically stated sentences. This is in turn done by observing the interactions one has, the habits it instills, and “expectations of how to show what is meant by what is said. The form of communication used over the years is “language”. It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people.
According to J. A Thomas, “Meaning is not something which is inherent in the words alone, nor is it produced by the speaker alone, nor by the hearer alone. Making meaning is a dynamic process” (1995: 22). What it is indicated by Thomas is that language consists on several internal factors than just words and grammar structures. Meaning is determined by the speaker’s intention as well as interpretation.
So we can define discourse analysis as a study of the relationship between language and contexts in which it is used. It examines how stretches of language, considered in their full textual, social and psychological context, become meaningful and unified for their users. Any meaning should be analyzed not only within the linguistic system, but also within the social system in which it occurs. We cannot rely on language alone when analyzing meanings; we must take into account what surrounds the language immediately i.e. social norms, culture, mentality, hidden intentions and pragmatic elements, such as tone, intonation, facial expressions gestures, etc.
The definition is rather simple and inadequate to support the notion of ethnography of communication. The definition given by John Lyons was focusing on a given language and dialect. It makes no allowance for bilingual or bi- dialectal communities. According to Dell Hymes (2011), he stressed that a speech community is a community that
Lexicographers study words , their meanings and their histories . Grammarians are concerned with the words and how they are put together to form sentences and spoken utterances . And Discourse Analysts study the ways sentences and utterances go together to make texts and interactions and how they fit into our social world . Therefore , the term discourse analysis may be defined in different ways and its meaning will vary according
My discipline, which s Media and Cultural Studies, my major needs me look into the postmodern mass media productions and their behind values in culture. Which means, the content analysis is used to investigate the content of the Mass Media, although it has applications across a wider range of spheres – the analysis of historical documents, for example, mass produced urban culture, movies, advertising, pop music, and science fictions. And the interview should be introduced in usages, strengths and weaknesses in further elaboration. The method of content analysis enables the researcher to include large amounts of textual information and systematically identify its properties, such as the frequencies of most used keywords by locating the more