This theory was created by a man named Carl Jung, who was a Swiss psychiatrist (Mitchell, n.d.). Analysts connected homosexuality with many severe mental illnesses including schizophrenia, obsessional disorders and severe character pathologies. These disorders, however, are not present in all homosexuals, just like mental disorders are not present in all heterosexuals (Lewes, 1995; Bieber, 1962). An analogy for this could be going to a Volkswagen dealership, observe that all the cars on the lot are Volkswagens, and then conclude that all cars are Volkswagens. Although the analytic theory is the only one with vindication on the matter, there is very little support found in objective scientific investigations on many components of this theory (Jensen, 1996).
It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. (McLeod, 2008) Common critiques of Freud 's theory & Erikson’s theory: Freud’s psychosexual theory is controversial. It has been thoroughly criticized. Even though Freud’s stages are related to children he based most of his theory on his work with troubled adults.
Freud’s theory emphasizes dreams are associated with desires that are distasteful to the conscious mind; therefore, they can only exist in bewildering forms so that the content of the dream would not cause discomfort in people. The theory itself has a significant number of opponents. The opposition suggests dreams are produced by the brain in response to the sensory information the body receives during sleep, and they have no connection to the person’s thought and mind. Interestingly, the results of both Freud and Ferenczi’s dream analyses on their patients have helped substantiate dreams have more profound meaning. In fact, Freud discovered the significance of dreams by studying neurotic patients.
Freud also is well-known for his sexual and irrational interpretation of dreams, which demonstrates how prevalent the idea of irrationality was at that time (e.g. Kafka’s The Metamorphosis as well). Although elements of the Enlightenment are still prevalent to this day, the Modernist era was a result of a shift in beliefs, which Freud shows throughout his varying pieces of work, including On
Hence homosexuality in nineteenth century was seen as something which was not scientifically accepted or being termed as pathological so anyone being homosexual was seen in Freudean point's of view as pathological. Foucault pointed this out and said freudian point of view would lead to preoccupation with one form of sexuality which was accepeted by the society based on the biological and medical disciplines.So according to him any individual who is homosexual would then be objectified by attaching a label of homosexual to them and giving them a social identity also. Even a person who is homosexual by his will would be forced to objectify himself as pathological because he would made to realize that in the society in which he is living
Freud's belief is that, creativity and sexuality are deeply linked and he goes as far as saying that the goal of creativity is sexual gratification.8 However, Freud has a different definition of sexuality than the one that is most commonly used. The English Oxford Dictionary, for example, describes sexuality as “the capacity for sexual feelings”, “a person's sexual orientation or preference” and “sexual activity”.9 Freud follows the notion of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, for whom Eros and sexuality had two different sides. One of these sides is generally linked to the word sexuality: lustful attraction. The other side, however, displays a more innocent variation: love that has nothing to do with physical attraction but operates on a more internal level.10 This is often also called “platonic
Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical and Psychosexual Development is a theoretical development perspective in human growth and development. Freud was born in Australia and later became a neurologist who developed a new way in understanding the personality of humans. He is known as the founder of Psychoanalysis and also the Psychoanalytic Theory. Psychosexual development was also a Freudian theory, in his theory he was explained over the course of child hood how a person’s personality is developed (). Freud thought that early experiences in childhood were factors of development later in an individual’s life.
This essay will use Freud’s works Totem and Taboo (1913) and The Future of an Illusion (1927) to discuss his theory of religion. It will first consider Freud’s work on Australian Aborigines and their religion of totemism, and then focus on why Freud believes religious belief to be an illusion. Freud studied Indigenous tribes of Australia and found that each tribe can be sectioned into smaller divisions known as clans. The clans have a religious system called totemism and every clan has a totem that they are named after (Freud, 1913). As a rule the totems are usually an animal and are more rarely a plant or natural phenomenon.
Freud therefore claims that sexuality is a concept which develops from birth and not at puberty as it is widely been claimed and for many years has been accepted. During Freud’s studies, he observed children’s behaviour during the predictable stages of early development and he observed that their behaviour was directed towards