Cultural Influence On Speaking

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2. Review of the related literature
2.1 Introduction
In this chapter, the researcher will review some concepts, definitions and studies related to culture, language, Cultural influence on speaking and Teaching culture in EFL classroom.
2.2 Culture
Among many other researchers, Hymes (1996) stresses that the learning of culture needs to be a basic part of language learning and education because culture critically effects on the values of the community, everyday interaction, the norms of speaking and acts, and the socio-cultural expectations of an individual's roles. He further notes that those who do not follow the norms of usefulness accepted in a community are often placed in a position that excites social differences and bias. Although
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Language schools are not included” (p. 35). He keeps out schools in countries like India, for example, where English is an widely used language in academia. However, his definition includes schools that teach a national curriculum and provide to a particular nation’s culture like an overseas American school.
Participation in a new culture begins with passed-down experiences with the different culture through books, news stories, and movies, and develop into the most severe form of participation: a life enclosed in the culture where work and social activities access through the channels of the new culture (Heyward,
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As Buttjes (1990: 55-56) notes, ‘language teachers need to go beyond monitoring linguistic production in the classroom and become aware of the multiple and numerous processes of intercultural negotiation that any foreign language learner is subjected to...’. To review the relationship between language and culture; Samovar, Porter, & Jain (1981: 24) observe:
Culture and communication are connected with each other because culture not only dictates who talks to whom, about what, and how the communication proceeds, it also helps to decide how people encrypt messages, the meanings they have for messages, and the conditions and conditions under which various messages may or may not be sent, noticed, or defined... Culture...is the foundation of

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