Early childhood education generally means an education before the child start of formal schooling or before the age they required to attend the school. It is crucial stage of life in development the physical, intellectual, emotional and social lifestyle of the children. For the basic education method the approach must base on their prior knowledge and practice is called “constructivism”. Social constructivism is the one of the theories of learning and pedagogy that had the utmost impact on tutoring and curriculum design because they seem to be the most conducive to integration into current educational approaches.
The ideal model of schooling for young adolescents is the middle school model. The middle school model allows for a smooth transition from elementary school to middle school. The model also takes into consideration the developmental needs of adolescents. The middle school model best fits the uniqueness of the young middle school learner.
t is extremely important to have the support of parents and carers in a school, they are a
I’ve gotten to play frisbee all over the country, including Chicago, Minnesota, California, and Oregon. Traveling to frisbee tournaments as a team brings the team closer together, as we gain a better understanding of each other; as we spend time together, our teamwork improves. In fact, I’ve been playing team sports since I was in first grade, so I have a lot of experience working in teams. For example, I’ve played soccer since I was little, and I am now the goalie for my high school. As the goalie, I can see the entire field, so it is my job to get everyone in the right spot; it is my job to get the team to work together. Teamwork is also seen in my schooling. I’ve gone to schools that use group work as a common educational tool. For example,
The information processing theory is a structure which rationalises how people obtain; process and store information and knowledge (Tangen & Borders 2017, p. 99). The Information processing theory involves the clinical reasoning cycle and the information processing model.
How reliable are the two models or theories of the cognitive process of memory, “|…|the process of maintaining information over time” (Matlin, 2005) , known as the multistore model (MSM) and the levels of processing model (LOP)? Both of these models have been widely criticized, but simultaneously they have improved our knowledge and understanding of how the process of memory works. In this essay both of these models of memory will be evaluated by presenting the strengths and limitations of each.
The concept of Learning as a process of Cognitive Development, has intrigued Psychologists for many years. Learning, as defined by Schacter, Gilbert & Wegner (2011) is “the acquisition of new knowledge, skills or responses from experience that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner”. Jean Piaget, a Swiss-born Psychologist, was one who was particularly interested in how children perceive their environment. So engrossed was he by this process, that Piaget used his own children as scientific models in his experiments, in establishing his theory of Cognitive Development. After analyzing the behaviors of his children in their early development, Piaget concluded that there are four main stages of human cognitive maturation:- The Sensorimotor Stage, the Preoperational Stage, the Concrete Operational Stage and the Formal Operational Stage. This essay seeks to outline and examine Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory, and to illustrate how this theory can influence the learning and teacher pedagogy in classes within the Caribbean region.
According to information processing model, short term memory has a limited capacity to hold information (Atkinson & Shriffin, 1968). The span of short term memory is said to be limited to about seven items (+2) (Miller, 1956 as cited in Terry, 2000). Short-term memory is also an active memory where we do our active memory processing (Lefrancois, 2000). For this reason, several researches have called the short term memory the working memory store (Gordon, 1989). Working memory is important for learning. However, it is extremely limited in both capacity and duration (Atkinson & Shriffin, 1968). When engaging in a learning task, the learner must make use of working memory capacity, and hence a load is placed upon that memory (Sweller, 2010). When the cognitive load exceeds the limit of working memory capacity, learning will be affected. Effective instructional methods that can support limited short term storage and limited working memory processes are being used in classroom to maximise the learning (Dehn, 2008). Thus, this essay will probe on the extent of teachers considering the limited processing capacity of students’ working memory in Malaysian English language classroom using multiple modality teaching aids, part whole approach and collaborative learning.
Behaviourism assumes that a learner is fundamentally flaccid, replying to environmental incentives. Behaviour theorists states learning as nothing more than the attainment of new behaviour. In this theory Language acquisition is the result of stimulus-response activities where factors that facilitate are imitation, replication, reward and reinforcement.
Developmental psychology relates to the changes in behaviour and abilities that transpire over time as development advances. (Harwood & Miller, 2008). Infancy and childhood is a time of rapid development of social, sensory and cognitive abilities. Infants acquire perceptual and motor skills which allow them to comprehend the world they live in. Cognitive development is “the growth of cognitive abilities and capacities from birth to old age” (Colman, 2008). In this essay I will address Piagetian Theory, the cognitive performance of children from age seven to eleven, (the concrete operational period), and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of cognitive development.
Learning theories are used every day in classrooms all over America, educational theorist Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Benjamin Bloom and Jerome Bruner introduced constructivism and social constructivism theories (cognitive development, social development, and developmental). The theories developed by Vygotsky, Piaget, Bloom, and Bruner share similarities and differences, and throughout the years have been compared for educational discoveries. Learning theories are extremely important for educators, because learning is an active process.
“Behind every school and every teacher is a set of related beliefs - a philosophy of education – that influences what and how students are taught. A philosophy of education represents answers to questions about the purpose of schooling, a teacher’s role and what should be taught and by what methods.” (Teacher, Schools and Society. 2005).
Jean Piaget, known for his interest in the Epistemology in children is seen as the pioneer of Developmental Psychology. Piaget 's Cognitive development theory led to a great deal of research work in the field of educational philosophy . But in the discipline of Psychology, every theory has been faced with a counter theory or an alternative. So is the case with Piaget 's theory. Lev Vygotsky, a soviet psychologist came up with the socio-cultural theory, which is another strong theory emphasizing child development and is seen as a major counter theory to Piaget 's work (Saul McLeod, 2004). Theories of these two cognitive psychologists have been compared and contrasted on different levels. This essay will look into the differences and similarities between their theories.
According to Lewis (2009) in his book “Understanding Pupil Behaviour: Classroom Management Techniques For Teachers” mentioned that there are some effects if the teachers don’t know about the students’ characteristics such as stress and Post-Guru Syndrom. Stress happens when they feel unable to maintain an classroom in which students can get on with their work and teachers can teach without unnecessary interruption, it is usually part of failure teacher in managing the classroom misbehavior of students and Post-Guru Syndrom happens when the teachers become inconsistent to implement the appropriate technique in teaching for students and finally