Obviously the development of producing plastic went to quick and people did not think of a unified and sustainable way of how to dispose the huge amount of plastic. Unfortunately many countries decided to dispose all the garbage into the ocean but also ship accidents are a reason why so much plastic accumulated in our ocean. Every year more than eight million tons of plastic waste leak into the ocean. A big issue nowadays is that most of the plastic which is produced in one year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short lived products that are discarded within a year (Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society, 2009). That means that our use of plastic is not sustainable at all.
When a larger animal consumes the hazardous animal, it affects the entire food chain (“What Is Ocean”). Plastic garbage from ships collects in the oceans, where it is eaten by some animals, causing it to choke them or to block their stomachs (Claybourne 38). Littering raises the carbon dioxide levels in the ocean. The carbon dioxide in the trash raises the temperatures of the water, which can lead to coral bleaching. Most of the trash and debris released into the oceans cannot decompose, leaving it floating in the ocean for many years.
Like all plastics, bio-plastics are made from the combination of polymers. A polymer is substance that is comprised of small molecular subunits called monomers. The process of linking these monomer subunits together end to end that creates a polymer. This either involves the process of dehydration, which is the removal of water from the sugar or through polymerization to cause the molecules to link together in chains. From there on molecularly linking polymers together will make a plastic.
Tobacco product packaging made up 30% of the waste, while another 30% came from food wrappers (Plastic Litter Threatens River Life). III. There are ways further plastic pollution can be regulated and slowed. A. Plastic bag bans are becoming more prevalent.
So, fewer fossil fuel are burned which reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decreases greenhouse gasses which decrease global warming. According to studies the landfills are responsible for about 25% of world greenhouse gas. By Recycling waste in the landfills, the amount of greenhouse gas will minimize because when you leave it in the landfill they will burn it. So, that will release greenhouse gas which is the main reason of causing the global warming. Also, you can minimize the global warming by recycling paper.
6. POLYESTERAMIDES Introduction: -Structure of Polyesteramides- Polyesteramides are group of biodegradable polymer that covers both specialties in the biomedical field and commodity applications. These polymers have amide and ester groups on their chemical structure which give good thermal and mechanical properties. Polyesteramides are polymers with hydrolysable backbones which able to biodegrade under particular conditions. Strong hydrogen bonding interactions between amide groups back up some typical weakness of aliphatic polyester.
Its decomposition gives natural by products such as gases carbondioxide and nitrogen, biomass, water and also inorganic salts. These polymers can be both naturally and synthetically prepared, and largely consist of amide, ester, and ether as functional groups. The properties and the mechanism of breakdown is determined by its structure. These polymers are synthesized by ring opening polymerization, condensation reactions and also from metal catalysts. The are examples of biodegradable polymers are as follows: 1) Poly-Hydroxybutyrate-co-b-Hydroxy valerate (PHBV) : This copolymer consist of 3-hydroxy butanoic acid and of 3-hydroxy pentanoic acid.
Despite of the huge advantages of made materials by using polymers, these actually are the real threats for environment as well as human health especially due to long decomposable nature of the polymers. 50 billion of waste water bottle generate every year in worldwide and expected to increase (Amit G et al., 2012). This is the major issue in many developing and under developing countries to recycle and reuse waste polymers. Besides, due to inefficient and high cost consuming projects, this avoids the process of recycle and reusing so lastly it becomes wastes and goes to landfills. Some will be burnt under uncontrolled conditions that could also lead to generation of many hazardous air