Wilcox, W., 2013. Gender and Parenthood. Columbia Univ Pr. (p.164-170) Explores how parenting across the family life cycle influences an individual 's economic perspective and there suitability of partners in providing certain types of care and resources depending on gender. Thus, creating stereotypes in a family environment.
That is an increase from 11% in 2000 according to US Census Bureau data. First, any serious strategy to facilitate the economic growth of the US is obligated to include finding means to increase better paying jobs to aid both people without jobs and those working in low wage positions considered working poor. For example the Economic Policy Institute estimates that half of the jobs pay less than $34,000 a year. Hence it is not very hard to visualize families trying
In the 1970s, the wage gap decreased because “women’s progress in education and workforce participation” (Miller, 2018). However currently there is still a wage gap: for every dollar a man makes a woman makes eighty cents for same job – on average. What is being seen recently is that intersectionality plays a vital role in the wage gap as well; not only are women being paid less than men, but some races of women are being paid less than others. It was discovered that “among full-time workers in 2016, Hispanic or Latina, black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHPI) women had lower median annual earnings compared with non-Hispanic white and Asian women” (Miller, 2018). It was also revealed that Asian women have the smallest wage gap when compared to men and that Hispanic women have the largest wage gap when compared to men.
In an interview with Facebook’s Sheryl Sandberg, she states that there “female senior managers [ a high professional and management jobs] are paid less than male senior managers it’s that there are fewer female senior managers than male.” she also states that “this hugely skews those average figures like the 77 cents per dollar that are bandied about (Perry).” Sandberg tries to prove with this fact that the reason that there 's a pay difference is due to the fact that there are not enough females holding high enough positions to reinforce the pay gap. Within Mark Perry’s article, he believes that there is no gender wage gap, rather a gender earnings gap. Perry provides twenty different gender gaps that reflects gender difference in the market, his examples help prove why gaps are generally favored towards men. This helps him explain why men earn higher incomes on average than women. These facts make you think about how some men put their lives at risk by working in the cold or working with life threatening things.
Census American Factfinder, women physicians and surgeons earn about $120,971 and men make $190,726. Men within that occupation make almost $70,000 more than women who have the same level of experience, work hours, and education. Studies have proven that for a woman’s yearly income to equate to a man with a high school degree, she must receive a college degree (Chemaly). Even for women to make nearly as much as men, they need to have a higher education. Discrimination is described as a means of bias or prejudice toward an individual or group of people and clearly, within these circumstances men, are favored in the eyes of employers of being worthy for a larger income than women; which is a prime example of discrimination within the workplace.
The disparity has been justified that women make less money than men are based on what seem to be logical reasons but According to a 2010 study done by the U.S. Census Bureau, the average of all working women earn 78% of what men makes and 64% for black women. While is is useful to look at the incomes of men and women as a whole, it still doesn’t account for things such as educational level, work experience, hours worked, and type of job. However, even when we control for these factors, the gender pay gap still exists. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics released a 2014 report examining the median weekly earnings of full time wage and salary workers that took gender and job position into account. When type of job and job position are control for these factors, the gender wage gap disparity still exists in every field.
Strengths This article claims the gender-occupational stereotypes have deep roots. It provides the data about the inequality between women and men, such as “As of 2003, female workers in the United States earned approximately 77 cents for each dollar earned by men.” Weaknesses This article does not contain very much information for the research. Although
In this regard, through modeling and socialization, gender-linked information is cognitively processed to an individual. Thus, parental and peer influence can be a predictor of an individual’s gender-role attitude in terms of traditional gender-role attitude, egalitarian gender-role attitude and anti-traditional gender-role
As an example, she brings a story when a man with some skills is paid more than a woman with the same skills, that’s the way men rule today’s world (Adichie, 2013.) The major cause of this problem is the leadership ambition gap. The data from a survey conducted by McKinsey (2012) presented by Sandberg (2013) proves that in field after field, more men than women aspire to the top jobs. The survey, performed among more than four thousand employees of leading companies, indicates that 36% of the men wanted to reach the C-suite, compared to only 18% of the women. When jobs are described as powerful, demanding, and comprising high levels of responsibility, more men are getting interested than women.
These percentages depict the “under-representation” of women in the fields of science and technology (Mzumngaile, cited in Dickson, 2002). Moreover, according to the report presented by the US Department of Commerce, more than 50% of the total jobs in the country is taken by females. However, only 25% of them is in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (Stem), regardless of the 33% more value in the average salary of other industries (Knight, 2011). Reports also show that on average, men get higher salaries than women. Work expectations among men is also higher as compared to women (Hays & Farhar, 2000, p. 20).
This means that for every $1.00 earned by a male worker, a female worker earns 74 cents. most jobs in the booming oil and constructions industries—as one possible reason for the stagnation in the gender income gap. For the most highly educated Canadian women, gender differences in earnings within identical occupations are generally very small among new entrants to the labor force. The focus on this survey was concentrated on causes the wage’s gap between different genders. The report showed how different genders choose their job by categorizing occupations.
Of these men and women, the white males made an average of $884 per week and the white females made just $722 per week. Thus, the total white males working in the U.S. in 2013 earned an average of $162 more than women workers per week. Out of the Whites, Blacks or African Americans, Asians and those of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity the Asian male and female wage gap was the largest with Asian females earning $819 on average per week and the Asian males earning $1,059 on average per week. This $240 difference indicates that the male to female wage difference in the U.S. may most strongly affect Asians. Black or African American males made $664 on average per week and Black or African American females made $606 on average per week, a difference of $58.
Evidence from 2013 and 2014 minimum wage increase shows that an average minimum wage worker brings home more than a moiety of his or her family 's weekly earnings. In 2013 one million single mothers with children under 18 would have benefited from a minimum wage increase to $10.15. Single mothers are 10% of workers affected by an incrementation but they make up only 5.7 of the overall work force. More than two million espoused men and women with children under age 18 would additionally benefit from an